Leslie's Guiding History Site

Subtitle

What Did They Do?

UNDER CONSTRUCTION
What Did Rainbows/Brownies/Guides/Senior Section do in . . . . ?
A question that is regularly asked - it's our unit's anniversary soon, and we want to run a unit meeting or a residential in the style of the first meetings - so what did they do at their unit meetings back then?  On the one hand, I can't tell you what any individual unit did.  But here I hope to give a flavour of what the challenges were in a given era, and what sort of activities a 'typical' or 'average' unit might have done - if there is such a thing!

Bunnies pre-1987


Bunnies existed in Northern Ireland before Rainbows were invented, indeed as early as 1965, for girls aged 4-7.  Their groups were called Warrens, and they wore light grey neckers with a darker grey border.  They worked on challenges called Bunny Bobs to earn circular badges which were sewn along the hem of the necker.  The challenges were:

Red Bob - skip, bounce a ball, throw and catch

Purple Bob - make something of own choice, make cards, draw or paint a picture, make a puppet, make a frieze or collage.

Orange Bob - know Tufty and friends, Green Cross Code, have a knowledge of road sense around own area.

Pink Bob - help Mummy - tidy toys, clear table, care for books, tidy bedroom, help others.

Green Bob - make a scrap book - birds, fish, animals, fruit, vegetables, flowers, trees, butterflies, insects, seeds, zoo animals.  Grown things and take nature walks.

Blue Bob - retell a Bible story, learn a simple hymn or prayer.

Yellow Bob - tidy clothes, care for teeth, nails, hair, tie shoelaces or buckles.


Rainbows in the 1980s


Rainbows started officially in 1987.  Prior to this there had been a group in Northern Ireland, Bunnies, which had run for some decades.  And some pilots had been run elsewhere in the UK immediately before the launch.  But, when the time came for launching, there was a uniform tabard, and one page of instructions - so it was up to each unit to create it's own programme from scratch, and invent it's own traditions.  Success depended on the ingenuity and inventiveness of the Leaders . . .


Games tended to be drawn from playground game - What's The Time Mr Wolf, Grandma's Footsteps, etc.  Songs were things like 'I Can Sing A Rainbow', 'London Bridge Is Falling Down', or words to well-known tunes.

Rainbows in the 1990s



Games
Come Into Our Garden - the Rainbows dance around chanting "Come into our garden and what shall we see".  The Leader might reply "A giant sunflower for you and me".  The Rainbows then try to act the garden item mentioned.  

Hide A Rainbow - The Rainbows hop and skip around the room until the Leader shouts "rabbits", they then crouch down as small as they can, with their eyes shut.  The Leader covers 1 or 2 with a coat or blanket.  She then calls "up" and the other Rainbows have to get up, and work out who is missing.
Rainbows in the 2000s

Rosebuds/Brownies in the 1910s


Although Guides had started in 1910 (emerging from the Scout movement) there was an ongoing pressure from younger girls who wanted to join.  Eventually headquarters relented and started Rosebuds in 1914, which were renamed as Brownies in 1915.  According to the 1918 handbook, the tests were as follows:

  

The Second Class Brownie


1. Know how the Union Jack is made up, and the right way to fly it. 

 2. Be able to tie the following knots and know their uses: Reef knot, Sheet-bend, Clove-hitch, Fisherman’s knot.

 3. Be able to do up a parcel neatly.

 4. Hem a handkerchief or duster.

 5. Darn a stocking.

 6. Lay a table for dinner for two people.

 7. Bind up a cut finger or grazed knee.

 8. Perform the first two physical exercises given in the Handbook and know their objects.

 9. Know how and why she sould keep nails cut and clean, and teeth clean, and why breathe through the nose.

 10. Bowl a hoop or hop around a figure of eight course.

 11. Throw a ball ten yards with the right hand, and then with the left.

 12. Throw a ball to that a girl six yards away catches it four times out of six.

  

 The First Class Brownie


1. Know the alphabet in Morse or Semaphore, and be able to send and read three letters out of four correctly.

 2. Know the first two verses of God save the King.

 3. Know eight points of the compass.

 4. Clean knives, forks, and spoons.

 5. Make dolls’ clothes or Brownie Overall (which may be already cut out).

 6. Knit a pair of wristlets or muffler.

 7. Lay and light a fire; make tea and a milk pudding.

 8. Fold clothes neatly.

 9. Carry a message of twelve words in her head for over five minutes and deliver it correctly.

 10. Apply a triangular bandage.

 11. Perform the whole five body movements in the Handbook, and know their objects.

 

Brownies in the 1920s



A Brownie promises:


1. To do her best to do her duty to God and the King, and be loyal to the Law of the Brownie Pack

2. To try and help other people, especially those at home.

 

The Law of the Brownie Pack is:


1. The Brownie gives in to the Older Folk.

2. The Brownie does not give in to herself.


 


Recruit


A Brownie must know:

 The Brownie Promise.   The Brownie Salute.   The Smile.   The Good Turn.   The Fairy Ring.

 

And must be able to:

 Tie her own tie.   Plait her own hair.   Wash up the tea things.


 


2nd Class


I Intelligence

 Know the composition of the Union Jack and right way to fly it.   Tie the following knots and know their uses: Reef knot; sheet bend; clove hitch; fisherman’s knot.   Do up a parcel neatly.

 II Handicraft

 Hem a handkerchief or duster.   Darn an article or do the darning stitch.

 III Service

 Lay a table for two for dinner.   Bind up a cut finger or grazed knee.

 IV Physical Health

 Perform the first two physical exercises of the Handbook and know their objects, or those given on the new Guide Chart of Physical Exercises, such as the Brownie may perform for herself.   Know how and why she should keep nails cut and clean, and teeth clean, and why breathe through the nose.   Bowl a hoop or hop round a figure-of-eight course.   Throw a ball ten yards with the right hand and then with the left.   Throw a ball so that a girl six yards away catches it four times out of six.

  


1st Class


I Intelligence

 Know the alphabet in Morse or Semaphore, and be able to send and read three letters out of four correctly.   Know the first two verses of “God Save the King”.  Know eight points of the compass.

 II Handicraft

 Clean knives, forks and spoons.   Knit a pair of wristlets or muffler.   Lay and light a fire; make tea and a milk pudding.   Fold clothes neatly.

 III Service

 Carry a message of twelve words in her head for over five minutes and deliver it correctly.   Apply a triangular bandage.

 IV Physical Health

 Perform the whole five body movements in the Handbook, and know their objects, or those given on the new guide Chart of Physical Exercises, such as the Brownie may perform by herself.


Activities:

Train Inspection - The Brownies file up to the ticket office where Pack Leader or the eldest Sixer doles out tickets to everyone with their penny subs.  Anyone without a penny is given a label and sent to the Left Luggage office overseen by Tawny.  Brownies with tickets head to the ticket collector (Brown Owl) who marks signs on each ticket for badges, neatness, cleanliness etc, Tawny doing the same by the 'luggage'.  Ticket holders get into the express train behind Brown Owl, once all are aboard it races twice round the room.  After this the freight train puffs round once.  the goods can then be collected by the passengers and tickets totalled up to get Six points totals.


Cuthbert's Cow - The Brownies sit in a ring with Brown Owl in the middle.  Outside the ring of Brownies is a ring of chairs, facing inwards, there is one chair less than the number of Brownies in the game.  Brown Owl tells a story about Cuthbert, and every time "Cuthbert's Cow" is mentioned, the Brownies jump up and sit on a chair behind them.  The Brownie left without a chair is out, and one chair is removed after each turn.  In telling the story, Brown Owl is likely to mention Cuthbert's Cat, Cuthbert's Calf, Cuthbert's Cutlery or other things which may come to mind, any Brownie who moves at the wrong time is also out.  The last Brownie left sitting in a chair wins for her Six.


Games could include acting out nursery rhymes, but also the traditional 'school sports' races - three-legged, wheelbarrow, sack and hopping races.

Brownies in the 1930s


Brownies are girls under the age of 11, who are preparing to be Guides.

 

Note – it is recommended that children under the age of eight should not be enrolled as Brownies.  This allows Brownie training to be spread over a period of three years, which is considered long enough preparation before enrolment in a Guide company.

 

A Brownie promises –

To do her best

 1. To do her duty to God and the King.

 2. To help other people every day, especially those at home.

  

The Law of the Brownie pack is

 1. The Brownie gives in to the older folk.

 2. The Brownie does not give in to herself.

 

Recruit

A Brownie must know:

The Brownie Promise.   The Salute.   The Smile.   The Good Turn.   The Fairy Ring

And must be able to:

 Tie her own tie.   Plait her own hair.  (if “bobbed”, know how to plait and part her own hair straight).   Wash up the tea things.

 

2nd Class

A Brownie must:

 I Intelligence

 Know the composition of the Union Jack and right way to fly it.   Tie the following knots and know their uses: Reef-knot; sheet-bend; clove-hitch; round turn and two half hitches.   Do up a parcel neatly.   Must observe and describe something belonging to the outside world, chosen by herself.  This may be sky, sea, bird, tree, flower, animal etc.

II Handicraft

 Make something useful, showing the hemming stitch.   Darn an article or do the darning stitch.

III Physical Health

 Know how and why she should keep nails cut and clean, and teeth clean, and why breathe through the nose.   Bowl a hoop or hop round a figure-of-eight course.   Throw a ball ten yards with the right hand and then with the left.   Throw a ball so that a girl six yards away catches it four times out of six.

IV Service

 Lay a table for two for dinner.

 

1st Class

I Intelligence

 Know the alphabet in semaphore, and be able to send and read three letters out of four correctly.   Know first and last verses of “God Save the King”.   Know eight points of the compass.   Must have taken care of a plant, from seed or bulb, and be able to tell the examiner something about the way it has grown, and what has been done with it.

II Handicraft

 Clean forks and spoons.   Knit a child’s scarf or jumper or some other garment.   Lay and light a fire; make tea and a milk pudding.   Fold clothes neatly.  Clean shoes.

III Physical Health

 Walk ten yards balancing a book the size of “Girl Guiding” on the head; sit down on a chair, get up again, and return to the “starting point.”   Skip 30 times without a break, turning the rope backwards, and skip one fancy step.

IV Service

 Carry a message of twelve words in her head for over five minutes and deliver it correctly.  Bind up a cut finger or grazed knee.  Know what to do if clothing catches fire.



A lot of the Brownie programme in this era was based on folklore and fairies.  From making Six dens and fairy gardens, to listening to stories and acting them out, to singing games such as Nuts in May, Sandy Girl, Dusky Bluebells, the activities were very traditional.  Crafts were often toymaking, such as making doll-house furniture from matchboxes, walnut shells etc, dressing dolls, etc.  Some lucky Brownies got to go on Brownie Holiday - taking over a house for a week and living in it with brown Owl and Tawny, getting to practice some of their testwork and also enjoy games, picnics and outings to places of interest.  But Pack Holiday was for the lucky few.  For the majority, there were large Brownie Revels and gatherings held, some with fun activities, some with inter-pack competitions.  In an era when many children had not travelled far beyond their local area, such gatherings were a rare treat.

Brownies in WW2


Brownies


Recruit

A Brownie must know:

 The Brownie Promise.  The Law.  The Motto.  The Salute.  The Smile.  The Good Turn.  The Fairy Ring

And be able to:

 Fold and tie her own tie, and part her own hair.   Plait.   Wash up the tea things.


2nd Class (Golden Bar)

A Brownie must:

I Intelligence

 1. Know the composition of the Union Jack and right way to fly it.

 2. Tie the following knots and know their uses: Reef-knot; sheet-bend; round turn and two half hitches.

 3. Have a practical knowledge of the rules of the road.  Before she wins her Second Class each Brownie must take Brown Owl or Tawny Owl for a “Stop, Look, Listen” walk.

 4. Observe and describe something belonging to the outside world, chosen by herself.  This may be sky, sea, bird, tree, flower, animal, etc.

II Handicraft

 1. Make some useful article which must include a turned down hem sewn with a decorative tacking stitch.

 2. Show two methods of sewing on buttons and sew one button onto actual garment.

III Health

 1. Know how and why she should keep nails cut and clean, and teeth clean, and why breathe through the nose.

 2. Bowl a hoop or hop round a figure-of-eight course.

 3. Skip twenty times without a break, turning the rope backwards.

 4. Throw a ball against a wall from a point ten feet away from it and catch it four times out of six.

 Or

 Catch a ball thrown from a distance of six yards and reture it to the sender.  Throwing and catching to be accurate four times out of six.

IV Service

 Lay a table for two for dinner.



1st Class (Golden Hand)

A Brownie must have won her Golden Bar (Second Class), before taking her Golden hand (First Class) test).

I Intelligence

 1. Know the alphabet in semaphore, and be able to send and read three letters out of four correctly.

 2. Know first and last verses of “God Save the King”.

 3. Know eight points of the compass.

 4. Have taken care of a plant, from seed or bulb. And be able to describe to the tester something about the way it has grown, and what has been done with it.

 5. Tie up and address a parcel for the post, using any slip knot.

II Handicraft

 1. Knit a child’s scarf or jumper or some other garment.

 2. Lay and light a fire.

 3. Cook a useful dish, such as milk pudding, porridge, potatoes or other vegetable, or prepare a mixed salad.

 4. Make tea.

 5. Fold clothes neatly.

III Health

1. Throw a ball overarm (right or left arm) to land over a line ten yards away, and within two side lines three yards apart.

 2. Skip thirty times without a break, turning the rope backwards, and skip two of the following steps:

 (a) Feet crossing.

 (b) Pointing toes forward

 (c) Turning rope quickly (“pepper”)

 (d) Hopping with knee raising

IV Service

 1. Carry a message of at least twelve words in her head for over five minutes and deliver it correctly.

 2. Bind up a cut finger or grazed knee.

 3. Know what to do if clothing catches fire.

 4. Clean shoes.


During the war, many children of Brownie age found themselves displaced - urban schools were evacuated together to places in the country 'for the duration'.  So small villages faced an influx of children, most unfamiliar with country customs and unwritten rules, whilst urban children found themselves uprooted from the cinema, chip shop and busy streets.  Rationing, and factories turned over to war work, meant manufactured toys were rare, so many toys were homemade - dolls' house furniture from matchboxes, spinning tops carved from old cotton reels, rag dolls, etc.  Pack games had to be ones which didn't need much equipment.


In The Pond - Brown Owl chalks a ring on the floor with a smaller ring just inside it.  The centre ring is the pond, the outer shows the bank.  Brownies kneel around the outer edge of the bank.  If she says "In The Pond" they must all put their hands in the pond.  If she says "On The Bank" they must all put their hands on the bank.  But she may happen to say "In The Bank" or "On The Pond".  These, of course, are impossible as you cannot be in the bank, nor can you be on the pond - you would fall in!  So whoever is slowest to react is out, and anyone who moves her hands when she shouldn't is also out.


Jumping Relay - The Brownies stand in Sixes at one end of the hall.  At the other end of the hall on chairs a piece of rope is provided for each Six.  The two last Brownies in each Six run up and collect the rope, run back down the hall, then run either side of their Six with the rope stretched taut between them, while each member of the Six jumps over the rope.  When they get to the end of the line they give the rope to the last two Brownies who run up and round their chair, then back down and again run either side of their Six line, whilst each member of the Six jumps over the rope.  Once the last pair have jumped over the rope they return it to the chair and run back to their places, the first Six to have the rope back in place and everyone sitting down wins.

Brownies in the late 1940s


 Brownies are girls under 11 who are preparing to be Guides.  A Brownie may not be admitted to the pack before the age of 7 ½.  She is enrolled when she has passed the Recruit test and the Brown Owl considers she is ready for enrolment.  Three and a half years should normally be the maximum time in the pack.

 

Recruit Test

A Brownie must know:

 The Brownie Promise.  The Law.  The Motto.  The Salute.  The Smile.  The Good Turn.  The Fairy Ring

And be able to:

 Fold and tie her own tie, and part her own hair.  Plait.  Wash up the tea things.

  

Second Class

A Brownie must:

I Intelligence

 1. Know the composition of the Union Jack and right way to fly it.

 2. Tie the following knots and know their uses: Reef-knot, sheet-bend; round turn and two half hitches.

 3. Have a practical knowledge of the rules of the road.  Before she wins her Second Class, each Brownie must take Brown Owl or Tawny Owl for a “Stop, Look, Listen” walk.

 4. Observe and describe something belonging to the outside world, chosen by herself.  This may be sky, sea, bird, tree, flower, animal, etc.

II Handicraft

 1. Make some useful article which must include a turned down hem sewn with a decorative tacking stitch;

 Or   Darn an article or do the darning stitch.

 2. Show two methods of sewing on buttons and sew one button onto actual garment.

III Health

 1. Know how and why she should keep nails cut and clean, and teeth clean, and why breathe through the nose.

 2. Bowl a hoop or hop round a figure-of-eight course.

 3. Skip twenty times without a break, turning the rope backwards.

 4. Throw a ball against a wall from a point ten feet away from it and catch it four times out of six.

 Or   Catch a ball thrown from a distance of six yards and return it to the sender.  Throwing and catching to be accurate four times out of six.

IV Service

 Lay a table for two for dinner.

 

First Class

A Brownie must have won her Golden Bar (Second Class) before taking her Golden Hand (First Class) test.

I Intelligence

 1. Know the alphabet in semaphore, and be able to send and read three letters out of four correctly, and send and read simple words.

 2. Know first and last verses of “God Save the King”.

 3. Know eight points of the compass.

 4. Have taken care of a plant, from seed or bulb, and be able to describe to the tester something about the way it has grown, and what has been done with it.

 5. Tie up and address a parcel for the post, using any slip knot.

II Handicraft

 1. Knit a child’s scarf or jumper or some other garment.

 2. Lay and light a fire.

 3. Cook a useful dish, such as milk pudding, porridge, potatoes or other useful vegetable, or prepare a mixed salad.

 4. Make tea.

 5. Fold clothes neatly.

III Health

1. Throw a ball overarm (right or left arm) to land over a line ten yards away, and within two side lines three yards apart.

 2. Skip thirty times without a break, turning the rope backwards, and skip two of the following steps:

 (a) feet crossing

 (b) Pointing toes forward

(c ) Turning rope quickly (“pepper”)

 (d) Hopping with knee raising

V Service

 1. Carry a message of at least twelve words in her head for over five minutes and deliver it correctly.

 2. Bind up a cut finger and grazed knee.

 3. Know what to do if clothing catches fire.

 4. Clean shoes.


Shopping List - The Sixes are in long lines spread along the length of the room.  The Sixers run up to Brown Owl, who reads out a shopping list to them.  The Sixers memorise it, then run to tell it to the next Brownie in their line, who passes it to the next, until the Second, being the last Brownie in the line, writes down the list she is given, puts it in a envelope, addresses the envelope to Brown Owl and delivers it to her.  (e.g. a note is pinned on the wall giving "Brown Owl, The Guide Hall, High Street, Anytown, AB1 2CD" for the Brownies to copy neatly).


Farmyard Ball Game - The Brownies are split into two teams and stand in lines facing each other.  Each Brownie becomes a farmyard animal - goat, cow, donkey, turkey, chicken, duck, pig, collie etc - and are 'numbered' so the same animals stand opposite one of the same.  The Brownies then come together into a large circle.  Brownie Helper stands in the middle of the ring with a bouncy ball, which she bounces, and at the same time makes the noise of one of the farmyard animals.  The two animals, on hearing their cry, rush to the middle of the ring and try to catch the ball before it bounces a second time, and the one who catches the ball gains a point for her side.  If the ball bounces twice (or more) before being caught, the catch does not count.

Brownies in the 1950s


Brownies are girls under 11 who are preparing to be Guides.  A Brownie may not be admitted to the pack before the age of 7 1/2. 

 

Recruit

A Brownie must know:

 The Brownie Promise.  The Law.  The Motto.  The Salute.  The Smile.  The Good Turn.  The Fairy Ring

And be able to:

 Fold and tie her own tie, and part her own hair.  Plait.  Wash up the tea things.

 

Second Class

A Brownie must:

I Intelligence

 1. Know the composition of the Union Jack and right way to fly it.

 2. Tie the following knots and know their uses: Reef-knot; sheet-bend; round turn and two half hitches.

 3. Have a practical knowledge of the rules of the road.  Before she wins her Second Class, each Brownie must take Brown Own or Tawny Owl for a “Stop, Look, Listen” walk.

 4. Observe and describe something belonging to the outside world, chosen by herself.  This may be sky, sea, bird, tree, flower, animal, etc.

II Handicraft

 1. Make some useful article which must include a turned down hem sewn with a decorative tacking stitch;

Or Darn an article or do the darning stitch,

 2. Show two methods of sewing on buttons and sew one button on to actual garment.

III Health

 1. Know how and why she should keep nails cut and clean, and teeth clean, and why breathe through the nose.

 2. Bowl a hoop or hop round a figure-of-eight course.

 3. Skip twenty times without a break, turning the rope backwards.

 4. Throw a ball against a wall from a point ten feet away from it and catch it four times out of six.

 Or   Catch a ball thrown from a distance of six yards and return it to the sender.  Throwing and catching to be accurate four times out of six.

IV Service

 Lay a table for two for dinner.

 

First Class

A Brownie must have won her Golden Bar (Second Class) and show that she is really trying to be a Brownie before taking her Golden Hand (First Class) test.

I Intelligence

 1. Know the alphabet in semaphore and be able to send and read three letters out of four correctly, and send and read simple words.

 2. Know and understand the meaning of the first and last verses of “God Save the King”.

 3. Be able to set a compass and know eight points.

 4. Have taken care of a plant, from seed or bulb, and be able to describe to the tester something about the way it has grown, and what has been done with it.

 5. Tie up and address a parcel for the post, using any slip knot.

II Handicraft

 1. Knit a child’s scarf or jumper or some other garment.

 2. Lay and light a fire.

 3. Cook a useful dish, such as milk pudding, porridge, potatoes or other vegetable, or prepare a mixed salad.

 4. Make tea.

 5. Fold clothes neatly.

III Health

 1. Throw a ball overarm to land over a line ten yards away, and within two side lines three yards apart.

 2. Skip thirty times without a break, turning the rope backwards, and skip two of the following steps:

 (a) Feet crossing.

 (b) Pointing toes forward.

 (c ) Turning the rope quickly (“pepper”).

 (d) Hopping with knee raising.

V Service

 1. Carry a message of at least twelve words in her head for over five minutes and deliver it correctly.

 2. Bind up a cut finger and grazed knee.

 3. Know what to do if clothing catches fire.

 4. Clean shoes.


Games

Flower Colour - The Brownies sit in their Sixes, in file at one end of the room, the Leader stands opposite, and between them is a tray with one item in each colour, eg red pen, green envelope, purple bead.  Brown Owl calls out the name of a flower, and the first Brownie in each Six races to bring her an object of the matching colour.  After each round the competitors go to the back of their line.


Ten-Yard Throwing Game - The Brownies choose partners and pair off.  The partners stand facing each other ten yards apart, in lines.  The first Brownie on the right throws the ball to her partner, who catches it, and throws it right back to her.  She then hands it to the Brownie on her right, who throws it to her partner, and so on until the ball has got to the end of the line, when the last Brownie starts and hands it to the Brownie on her left, and the ball travels down the line again.  Each Brownie has two lives, and she loses one every time she misses a catch - each pair drops out when one of the partners runs out of lives.  The winning pair are the ones left in.

Brownies in the 1960s


A Brownie is a girl under 11 who is preparing to be a Guide.  A recruit may not be admitted to the pack before the age of 7 ½ .  She is enrolled when she has passed the Enrolment Test and the Brown Owl considers she is ready.  Three and a half years should be the maximum time in the pack. 

 

Enrolment Test

1. Understand:

 The Brownie Promise.  The Law.  The Motto.  The Brownie Ring.  The Salute.  The Smile.  The Good Turn.  The Pow-wow Ring

 2. Fold and tie her own tie.

 3. Plait.

 4. Wash up the tea things.

 Before being enrolled, the recruit should read or be told the Brownie Story and know something about Brownies in other countries.


Second Class

 1. Know how the Union Jack and the flag of her own country are made up and the right way to fly them.

 2. Tie the following knots and know their uses: reef; sheetbend; round turn and two half hitches.

 3. Show that she understands the rules of the road, and take Brown Owl or Tawny Owl for a ‘Stop, Look, and Listen’ walk.

 4. Observe and describe something belonging to the outside world, chosen by herself, e.g. sky, sea, bird, tree, flower, animal, etc;

Or  Make a collection of six flowers or shells or feathers etc, and name them.

 5. Make a useful article to include a turned-down hem sewn with a decorative tacking stitch;

Or Darn an article or do the darning stitch.

 6. Show two methods of sewing on buttons and sew one button onto a garment.

 7. Know how and why she should keep her teeth clean, her nails cut and clean; and why breathe through the nose.

 8. Hop round a figure-of-eight or bowl a hoop.

 9. Skip twenty times without a break, turning the rope backwards.

 10. Throw a ball against a wall from a point 10ft away and catch it four times out of six,

Or Catch a ball thrown from a distance of 6yds, and return it to the sender, four times out of six.

 11. Lay a table for two for dinner.


 Intermediate

 1. Know fifteen letters of the alphabet in semaphore, send and read simple words.

 2. Set a compass and know eight points.

 3. Knit a small useful article.

 4. Fold clothes neatly.

 5. Skip thirty times without a break turning the rope backwards.

 6. Throw a ball overarm to land over a line 7 yds away within two side lines 3 yds apart.

 7. Clean shoes.

 8. Carry a message of at least twelve words in her head for over five minutes, and deliver it correctly.

 

First Class

 The candidate must hold the Golden Bar and show that she is trying to keep the Brownie Promise.

 1. Know the alphabet in semaphore; send and read three letters out of four correctly; send and read simple words.

 2. Know and understand the meaning of the first and last verses of ‘God Save the Queen’.

 3. Set a compass and know eight points.

 4. Have taken care of a plant, from seed or bulb, and describe to the tester something about the way it has grown, and how it was tended.

 5. Using any slip knot, tie up and address a parcel for the post.

 6. Knit a child’s scarf or jumper or some other garment.

 7. Lay and light a fire.  (If local conditions make this impossible the following may be substituted: Wash and iron a Brownie tie).

 8. Cook a milk pudding, porridge or equivalent dish, or potatoes or other vegetable, or prepare a mixed salad.

 9. Make tea.

 10. Fold clothes neatly.

 11. Throw a ball overarm to land over a line 10yds away within two side lines 3yds apart.

 12. Skip thirty times without a break, turning the rope backwards, and skip two of the following steps:

 (a) Feet crossing.  (b) Pointing toes forward.  (c )Turning rope quickly (‘pepper’).  (d) Hopping with knee raising.

 13. Carry a message of at least twelve words in her head for over five minutes and deliver it correctly.

 14. Bind up a cut finger and grazed knee.

 15. Know what to do if clothing catches fire.

 16. Clean shoes.

Note: The candidate must be ready to be tested in all sections on the same day.  If necessary the test may be taken on two days, provided that the interval is not more than approximately one week.


Games

Rabbits In Warrens - two Leaders make an arch, through which all the Brownies run in file.  When the whistle blows the arch falls over a rabbit and she is caught.  Once two rabbits are caught, they make a second arch.  Play continues until all are caught.


Match Story - Each Brownie has the same number of matches, 4 or 6, also 4 or 6 dried butterbeans.  The Guider tells a story (eg. "Once upon a time there was a king who had a beautiful crown" - the girls have to arrange their supplies into a crown, and the Leader chooses the best and gives them an extra match or bean.  "He sat upon a magnificent throne" - they make model thrones and again the winner gets an extra match or bean.  

Brownies 1968-1970s

Games
Brownie Door - The pack stand in a ring, one volunteer sits in the middle covering her eyes.  A 'door' is marked on the floor with rope or chalk.  The ring dances round, singing "One and two and three and four, who is knocking at the door, one and two and three and four, who is at the Brownie door?" (tune - boys and girls come out to play).  Whichever Brownie ends up at 'the door' says "Who is at the Brownie door?", the girl in the middle has one shot at judging who is speaking.  If she is correct, they change over, if not another round is played.

Queen's Train - One of the Leaders plays the Queen, who sits on a chair.  She is choosing ladies-in-waiting with clean hands and tidy nails to carry her train.  Each Brownie in turn walks behind the throne, and puts her hands over the Queen's shoulders.  If they are neat, the queen will nod.  If not, she will shake her head.  Once everyone has played, those with neat hands process behind the Queen on a lap of the room.
Brownies in the 1980s

Footpath
Wide Awake
Go for an 'I Spy' walk looking for different kinds of birds, flowers, chimney pots, TV aerials, signs of the seasons or anything else of interest.  OR Identify the Brownie badges.  OR Spot the good turns in the home safety picture.  OR Take part in a game using your senses.  OR complete your Wide Awake Challenge in another way.
Keep Healthy
Do one of the following:
a) Throw a bean bag to land four times out of six in a box positioned as far away from you as possible.  b) Learn to skip backwards.  c) See how many times you can bounce a ball without a break.  Challenge yourself to improve.  d) Jump the blob.
AND Make a special effort to look after either your nails or your teeth or your hair this week.
Do Their Best
a) Smile every time you want to grumble or are hurt.  b) Eat your food without complaining.  c) Thank God for something every day.  d) Go to bed when you are told.  e) Do a job you don't like.  f) Be kind to someone who is sick.  OR do your best in some other way you don't find easy.
Make Things
At a Brownie meeting make one of the following: a) A greetings card.  b) A decoration, e.g. for Christmas or New Year.  c) A toy.  d) A model.  e) Help your Six to make up a poem or mime.
Brownies are Friendly
Do one of the following:  a) Play a Brownie game or sing a Brownie song from another country.  b) Hear, tell or read a story from another country in which there are Brownies.  c) Find out what is special about February 22nd.
Lend a Hand
Record your Good Turns for a week and do one of the following: a) Take part in a Good Turn Venture with your pack.  b) Do a special job for your Guider.  c) Make, wash or mend some pack equipment.  OR make up your own Lend a Hand challenge.
Help at Home
Choose and do two of the following: a) Help with washing up or laying a table.  b) Clean shoes or muddy boots.  c) Clean out a bath or shower.  d) Make sandwiches.  OR do some other helpful job.
Have Fun Out of Doors
Do one of the following: a) Using natural materials, make a gift.  b) Name 5 birds or 5 flowers or 5 trees which you have seen and find out something about them.  c) Make a weather chart.  OR Enjoy yourself out-of-doors in some other way.

ROAD
Brownies are Wide Awake
Do one of the following: a) Use a private telephone or a public call box and pass on a message correctly.  Know how to contact the emergency services.  b) Remember a shopping list of at least 4 items.  Ask for each item politely.  c) Pass an eye and memory test (e.g. Kim's Game).  Or challenge yourself to remember in some other way.
Brownies Keep Healthy
Make a chart or collage showing the kind of foods needed to keep your body fit and healthy.  And do one of the following: a) Hit a target with a ball or a bean bag from as far away as possible.  b) Do some form of balancing, or show you can bowl a ball between two skittles.  c) Improve on a Challenge you have done already using a ball, a rope or a bean bag.
Brownies Do Their Best
Do two of the following: a) Make and keep a 'mind your tongue' challenge.  b) Do what you are told quickly (i.e. the first time).  c) Think of others in a special way by praying for different people.  d) Be kind to someone in the Pack who is not your best friend.  e) Do a job you don't like doing.  Or do your best in some other way.
Brownies Make Things
Do one of the following: a) Listen to a favourite piece of music and talk to your Guider about it.  b) Try a new craft, e.g. knitting, sewing, crocheting.  c) Make a small flower arrangement for a table from fresh, dried or artificial flowers.  d) Make a picture using a variety of material, e.g. natural materials such as leaves or flowers, cloth, felt or wool.  Or make something else of your choice.
Brownies Are Friendly
Do one of the following: a) Take part in a venture in which you meet other people who are not in your pack.  b) With your Guider's help find out about other people's work in the community, e.g. a clergyman, a policeman, a nurse, a school cleaner, a dustman.  c) Choose one country where there are Brownies, find out all you can about it, and point to this country on a map.  Or show friendliness to others in some other way.
Brownies Lend a Hand
Do a Good Turn every day and one of the following: a) Do a Good Turn for someone where you live or where the Pack meets.  b) Find as many ways as you can of keeping your home safe.  c) Know the fules of the road and show you know how to keep them.  Or Lend a Hand by acting sensibly and helpfully in some other way.
Brownies Help at Home
Do two or more of a following: a) Help care for your clothes and be able to pack a suitcase.  b) Make your bed and keep your room tidy for at least a week.  c) Keep a piece of furniture clean for four weeks.  d) Make tea or coffee and serve it nicely.  e) Make a salad or snack.  Or help at home in some other way.
Brownies Have Fun Out of Doors
Choose and do one of the following: a) Follow a trail which has been laid in wool, string or some other material.  b) Grow a plant from a seed or a bulb.  c) Care for a pet and over a period of time keep a record of what you do for it.  d) Make at least two types of rubbings (e.g. leaf rubbings, bark rubbings, floor or wall tile rubbings) and use them in an interesting way.  Or think up an out-of-doors challenge of your own.

HIGHWAY
Brownies are Wide Awake
Do at least one of the following: a) Learn the first and last verses of the National Anthem.  b) Learn how the Union Flag is made up.  Know the country emblems and the stories of the Saints.  c) Learn the Country Code and the reason for each part.  d) Find out about the story of your town's Coat of Arms.  e) Describe an interesting place near your home.  Or learn something else of interest or importance about where you live.
Brownies Keep Healthy
Do one of the following: a) Walk a figure of eight balancing a ball on a book.  Try using the hand you don't write with.  b) Make up a sequence of three or four different skipping steps.  c) With a bat, hit a ball that has been bowled to you, four times out of five.  d) Show that you have made progress in a sport which interests you, e.g. swimming, skating or riding.  Or challenge yourself in some other form of exercise.  
Brownies do Their Best
Over a period of time (more than one week), carry out one of the following:  a) Help in your place of worship in some special way, e.g. cleaning.  b) Make up, write down and illustrate prayers for the Pack or Pack Prayer Book.  c) Make up and illustrate a Thank You God Chart.  d) With the Pack, take part in a good Turn Venture.  Or think about the first part of your Promise and Do Your Best in some other way.
Brownies Make Things
Do one or more of the following: a) Take part in an entertainment by singing, acting, miming, dancing, reciting, playing an instrument or working a puppet, either alone or with others.  b) With your family, school or Brownie Pack, take part in a theatre visit.  Write or talk about it at a Pack Meeting.  c) Make up a story, poem or short play and use it to give pleasure to someone.  d) Make an article for a gift.  e) Try a craft new to you, e.g. weaving, embroidery or papier-mache.  Or challenge yourself to be creative in some other way.
Brownies Are Friendly
Do one of the following: a) Find out about the World Badge and, on a map point out ten countries where there are Brownies.  b) Make a scrap book about another country where there are Brownies.  c) Find out how Guiding began and make a display about it to show to your Six.  Or challenge yourself in some other way to find learn more about Brownies abroad.
Brownies Lend A Hand
Do a Good Turn every day and one of the following:  a) learn how to prevent simple cuts, grazes and nose bleeds from becoming worse.  b) Learn how to deal with clothes on fire and how to treat simple burns.  c) When out in the are where you live, make a list of the hazards you can find.  Or Lend a Hand to prevent accidents or give first aid in some other way.
Brownies Help at Home
Do two or more of the following: a) Make scones or cakes or make something useful from a recipe.  b) Defrost or clean out the refrigerator.  c) Help an adult to clean a car.  d) Learn how to repair clothes and sew on a button or badge.  e) Learn to iron a simple garment safely and learn the meanings of the symbols on clothes labels.  Or Help at Home in some other way.
Brownies Have Fun Out of Doors
Choose and do one of the following: a) Set a compass and know eight of it's points.  b) Make a simple map showing the area surrounding your Pack Meeting place or your home.  Give directions that would be helpful to a stranger, e.g. to the nearest shop, the nearest telephone or to the hospital.  c) Send a secret message to someone who is out of hearing range, using signals or codes.  d) Read a bus or train timetable and know the 24-hour clock.  e) With your parents' permission, take care of a garden, window box or tub.  Or do something else that will hep you to Have Fun Out of Doors.

Games
Traffic Cops - Imitation number plates are placed around the room.  The Brownies sit in a circle and are 'numbered' Police, Detectives, and Traffic Wardens, around the circle.  The Leader says "car SVS407J is wanted by the Police" - the police all head off to find and bring back the number plate, the first to find it gets a point.

Crazy Ball - All the Brownies stand around the room with one hand touching a wall.  The Leader stands on a chair holding a bouncy ball, and calls a statement such as 'anyone who is 7', 'anyone who goes to dance lessons', etc.  She then bounces the ball, and anyone the statement applies to can rush forward and try to catch the ball.  Whoever catches it is next on the chair.
Brownies in the 1990s
Brownies in the 2000s

Brownie Adventure - for Brownies aged 7-8.5.  Do a selection of activities from You, Community and World sections, or of your choice.

You:
My Good Turns - record your good turns for a week
Let Us Talk - visit the Brownie website, send an email and get a reply.
Healthy Body - colour the pictures of fruit and veg for each equivalent you ate that day.
Swim, Swim - try swimming, diving or lifesaving lessons.
Good Sense - what are your favourite things, and which of your senses do you use to enjoy them?  What would you miss if you lacked one?
Sun Safe - draw a poster, write a poem or make up a song to remind bout 'slip slap slop' sun safety.
Staying Safe - draw a map of a safe walking route utilising the Green Cross Code.
Safe At Home - spot the dangers in the picture.
Clean Hands - coat your hands with a soap/paint mix then wash them to see how difficult handwashing is.
Tasty Treats - think about the food eaten in the past week - favourites, omissions, overindulgencies.
Only Fingers In The World - take fingerprint rubbings of self and friends, and compare.
My Eye - find out all the colours in your eye.
Promise Tree - choose something you want to do your best at, write your plan, then colour when complete.
Going And Growing - make a healthy muesli recipe.
Easter - blow the insides out of an egg and then decorate it with sequins, glitter and gemstones.
Eid-Ul-Fitr - make a greetings card with a traditional pattern.
Holi - make a spatter picture.
Rosh Hashanah - make a honey cake recipe.
Hola Mohalla - pick a sport you like doing and improve your skills.
Tea Time - learn how to make a cup of tea.

Community
Friendly Food - make gingerbread characters then decorate them as people in the community who help.
Get Wrapped - learn how to wrap a parcel.
Special Design - glue string on a piece of cardboard or round a tin can, stamp in paint and use to make wrapping paper, and make a pop-up card.
Caring For The Earth - set yourself some 'reduce, re-use, recycle' challenges.
Country Care - find out about the Country Code, Highway Code and Green Cross Code.
Bird Life - make a .winter bird pudding' and hang it outside for birds to eat.
One Good Turn Deserves Another - record your good turns at home, school, and with friends, each day for a week.
Talk Time - play charades.
Find Your Way - try surfing for information on a computer.
Top Trees - try to spot and recognise different types of trees.
Tree Pictures - take a bark rubbing, cut a tree shape from the back of the paper, paint a background and stick the tree on it, take a leaf, paint it, and add leaf prints to the picture.
Animal Lives - find out how animals live and work together online, or in a library.
Bee Mobile - make a mobile from sponge balls and a wire coathanger.
The National Anthem - learn two verses of the UK National Anthem.  Make up a short play or scene to show what it means to you.
Local Legends - write and illustrate a local legend or draw a comic strip.
Local Songs - learn and perform a local song.

World
Super Stars - spot 3 constellations in the night sky.
My Own Star Show - prick out a constellation on paper then tape it onto a hand torch and project it on a wall.
Cupboard Love - look in cupboards - how many foreign foods are there?
Way Up High - find out how many people live in your village, country, the world.  Compare the size of the UK to USA, China, Australia.
Close Up Action - take close-up photos - can friends recognise them?
Get Green Fingered - plant some seeds.
World Thinking Day - make some biscuits and ice them to look like the earth.  Organise a thinking day party.
Animals In Danger - design a poster or write a poem about an endangered species.
Gorgeous Giant - make an elephant stand-up greetings card.
Down The Plug - try water saving ideas.
Fair Play Together - keep a fair play scrapbook.  Find out about peace symbols.
Lapp Mark - make a bookmark using bright colours.
Holiday Style - think about a place you'd like to visit and plan the outfit you'd wear.
On Your Feet - decorate plain flip flops with jewels, sequins etc.
Glittering Jewels - make paper beads, pasta necklaces, curtain ring rings.
Your Birthstone - find out the birthstones of your friends and families.

Adventure On
For Brownies aged 8.5 and over.

You
How Do I Feel - track your mood for 3 weeks and keep a diary.
Are You A Bookworm - record books you have read recently, and tell a friend about your favourite.
How Fit Are You - record your activity for a week.
Easy To Join - how accessible would your Brownie unit be for a disabled recruit?
Teeth For Life - find out about your teeth and how to look after them.
Safe As Houses - spot the dangers in the picture for different people.
I Feel Good - what are your talents?
Dream Home - design your dream bedroom.
Not Just Dreams - think about an ambition, plan how you could start achieving it.
Fighting Fire - make a fire plan for your home.
Food For All - find out about different dietary needs and try an alternative product.
My Promise - try a quiz to see how well you live by the Promise.

Community
Blooming Lovely - plant bulbs.
In The Frame - make photos or pictures of your Six, make flower shaped frames for them.
Again And Again - find out about recycling and re-using.
Past Games - find out about games parents and grandparents used to play, and try them.
Bird Life - draft some questions about birds then ask them of an expert, and do some birdwatching.
Animal Magic - find out about your pet or an animal you know,
Happy Talk - try fingerspelling and find out about other languages.
Home Zone - find out about your home area - make a model or sketch, spot dangers, find out about water or farm safety.

World
Our Planet - make a scrapbook of animals from different places around the world.
Earth Sun-Catcher - make a sun catcher with an image of planet earth.
Global Grub - find out about foods which come from different countries.
Exotic Foods - grow seeds or pips from fruit.
WAGGGS Africa - make beads from kitchen roll & water, and make them into a necklace.
WAGGGS Arab - make falafel
WAGGGS Asia Pacific - make fruity chapatis.
WAGGGS Europe - make cardboard castanets.
WAGGGS Western Hemisphere - make a wool hair braid.
Rights - discuss rights and responsibilities with your Guider.
Camouflage - design camouflage and non-camouflage outfits.
Amazing Women - think about amazing women in your life and what qualities make them amazing.

Girl Scouts/Guides in the 1910s


Guides were officially founded in 1910.  At first they followed Scout programmes, however in 1912 a new handbook was issued, “How Girls Can Help to Build Up The Empire” or “The Handbook for Girl Guides”.  The tests were given as:

 

Tenderfoot


A girl on joining the Girl Guides must pass a test in the following points:

 Know the signs and salute, and the three promises.

 Know the composition of the Union Jack, and the right way to fly it.

 Tie four of the following knots: Reef, sheet bend, clove hitch, bowline, fisherman’s and sheepshank.

 

The ceremony of enrolment takes place.  She then makes the Guide’s promise and is enrolled as a Tenderfoot, and is entitled to wear the trefoil badge brooch.

 

Second-Class Badge

 Before being awarded the second-class Guide’s badge, a Tenderfoot must pass the following tests:


Know ten poitns of the law of the Guides

 Must have at least four weeks’ attendance as a Tenderfoot.

 Must have knowledge of elementary first-aid, how to stop bleeding, and bind broken leg.

 Some knowledge of Morse alphabet.

 Tie six knots, as selected.

 Follow a track half a mile in twenty-five minutes, and cut out and make a signal flag; or, alternative –

 Cut out in paper, and place a Union Jack, and explain hoist, fly, origin and history.

 Lay and light a fire, using not more than two matches – if possible, in the open.

 Make a bed properly.

 Know the Guides’ secret passwords.

 First-Class Badge

 Before being awarded this, a girl –

 Must have Second-Class Badge

 Must have wom the Ambulance Badge

 Must have at least 1s. in savings bank, and show book.

 Must have knowledge of cookery, able either to skin and cook a rabbit, or to pluck and truss a bird (or signed certificate) and cook or bring a cooked pudding or meat stew cooked by herself.

 Show knowledge of the history of the place, whereabouts of ambulance, police, fire, telephone, stations, etc. and draw roughly a sketch map.

 Give correctly the Guides’ secret passwords.

 Bring skirt or blouse all sewn by herself, or equivalent in needlework.

 Swim fifty yards, or show a list of twelve satisfactory “good turns”.

 Judge unknown distances, heights, size, numbers, etc., within twenty-five per cent error.

 Show points of compass without a compass.

 Bring in a Tenderfoot trained by herself.

 (N.B. – This may be carried out within three months.)



A new handbook was issued in 1918, and the tests by then were:

How to Become a Tenderfoot

 A. You must learn the Guide Law.  B. You must make the Guide’s Promise.  C. You must learn the salute and the Woodcraft Signs of the Guides.  D. You must understand how the Union Jack is made up, and how it should be flown.  E. You must be able to tie knows and know what they are used for; any four of the following: Reef-knot, Sheet bend, Clove-hitch, Bowline, Fisherman’s knot, Sheepshank.  F. Elementary Guides’ Drill.  G. Must have one month’s attendance.

 

How to Become a Second Class Guide

I. Intelligence

Must have passed Tenderfoot tests.

    Have a further knowledge of the Guide Law.  Must have knowledge of the legends of the crosses of the Union Jack.  Signal the alphabet in Morse.  Know six different kinds of birds, plants or animals and their life history.  Know how to stalk and track, or (for town girls only) street observation of shops, people, or routes of buses.

    II. Handcraft

      Tie seven knots; lay and light a fire using not more than two matches.  Make a bed properly.

      III. Service

        Know how to stop bleeding (with pad and bandage on the wound only) and choking; remove dirt in the eye, and bandage a sprained ankle.  Make a Morse signalling flag (24in. by 24in.) or alternatively make some other article useful to the Company.  Know the rules of health.

        IV Health

          Know the five physical exercises and their objects as given in the Handbook, or equivalent exercises from the Board of Education Handbook (Physical Exercises for Public and Elementary Schools) such as a Guide may practise for herself.  Run a 100 yards in 20 seconds, or skip 100 times without a break.  (This latter test may be omitted in the case of girls certified physically unfit.)


          How to become a First Class Guide

          You must be a Second Class Guide and –

          I Intelligence

            Judge height, weight, distance, numbers.  Have 1s. in the Savings Bank.  Train a recruit to pass their Tenderfoot test.

            II Skill

            Hold cook and needlewoman’s badge

            III Service

              How to deal with any two accidents such as the following, I.e.: how to behave and how to rescue and what restoration or first aid to apply in cases of clothes on fire, drowning, electric shock, gas poison, ice accident.  Also hold the Ambulance badge.  Draw a rough sketch map of the district for half a mile (one mile in the country round company headquarters) and be able to direct a stranger to the nearest doctor, fire, ambulance, telephone, police or railway station; or post or telegraph office, pillar-box etc. from any point within that district.

              IIII Health

                Perform physical exercises as in Part I and instruct Tenderfoot in the same and in health rules.  Must be able to swim fifty yards, or hold the Child Nurse Badge.


                TYPICAL GUIDE GAMES

                The following two games are from "Scouting Games" by Sir Robert Baden-Powell.


                COMPASS POINTS

                "Eight Scout staves are arranged in star fashion on the ground all radiating from the centre.  One staff should point due north.  One Scout now takes up his position at the outer end of each staff, and represents one of the eight principal points of the compass.  The Scoutmaster now calls out any two points, such as SE and N, and the two Scouts must immediately change places.  Any one moving out of place without being names, or moving to a wrong place, or even hesitating, should lose a mark.  When changing places, Scouts must not cross the staves, but must go outside the circle of players.  When three marks have been lost the Scout should fall out.  As the game goes on blank spaces will occur.  These will make it slightly more difficult for the remaining boys.  To make the game more difficult sixteen points may be used instead of eight.  When played indoors the lines of the compass may be drawn in chalk on the floor."


                KIM'S GAME

                "The Scoutmaster should collect on a tray a number of articles - knives, spoons, pencil, pen, stones, book and so on - not more than about fifteen for the first few games, and cover the whole over with a cloth.  He then makes the others sit round, where they can see the tray, and uncovers it for one minute.  Then each of them must make a list on a piece of paper of all the articles they can remember.  The one who remembers the most wins the game."


                TYPICAL GUIDE SONGS

                At this early stage, there were a very small number of Guide songs being written - like "The Song of the Girl Guides" - most of these were written for piano accompaniment; not a problem in an era when most girls would have had piano lessons.  Outside of these, the repertoire would have included local folk songs, and popular music hall songs of the day.  The downside of the latter was that some of the lyrics of these songs were far from suitable for young girls, so even in those early days, those tasked with leading singing sessions would have had to do some censorship!


                Guides in the 1920s


                In 1921's POR the Guide tests were as follows:


                Guide Tenderfoot:

                Must Know:  The Guide Law.   The threefold Promise.   The signs and salute.   Must understand the composition of the Union Jack and the right way to fly it.   Must be able to tie four of the following knots: Reef, sheet-bend, clove hitch, bowline, fisherman’s and sheepshank.   Elementary Guide drill.   Must have one month’s attendance.

                 

                Guide 2nd Class

                I Intelligence

                 Must have passed Tenderfoot tests.  Have a further knowledge of the Guide Law.  Must have a knowledge of the legends of the crosses of the Union Jack.  Signal the alphabet in Morse (both reading and sending).  Know six different kinds of birds, plants or animals and their life history.  Know how to stalk and track or (for town girls only) street observation of shops, people, or routes of buses.

                II Handicraft

                 Tie seven knots; lay and light a fire (when possible in the open), using not more than two matches.  Strip and make a bed properly.

                III Service

                 Know how to treat simple cuts, and how to stop bleeding (with pad and bandage on the would only) and choking; remove grit in the eye, and bandage a sprained ankle.  Make a Morse signalling flag (24in x 24in) or alternately make some other article useful to the Company.  Know the rules of health.

                IV Health

                 Know the five physical exercises and their objects as given in the Handbook, or those given on the new Guide Chart of Physical Exercises, such as a Guide may practice for herself.  Run 100 yards in 20 seconds, or skip 100 times without a break.  (This latter test may be omitted in the case of girls certified physically unfit.)

                  

                1st Class Guide

                 Must be a 2nd Class Guide, and have a good influence in her Company.  State briefly the History and Aims of the GG Movement.

                I Intelligence

                 Judge height, weight, distance, numbers, and compass directions up to eight points.  Have 1s in the Savings Bank.  Train a recruit to pass her Tenderfoot Test.

                II Handicraft

                 Hold Cook, Needlewoman and Child Nurse Badges.

                III Service

                 Hold the Ambulance or Sick Nurse Badge, renewed every other year.   Have an intimate knowledge of the neighbourhood within a radius of half a mile from her Guide Headquarters (for country Guides one mile) and draw at the examination a rough sketch map which would enable a stranger to find his way from any one given point to another, and be able to direct a stranger to the nearest doctor, fire, ambulance, telephone, police or railway station, or post or telegraph office, pillar box etc., from any point within that district.

                IV Health

                 Perform physical exercises in 2nd Class Test and instruct Tenderfoot in the same and in the health rules.   Must be able to swim 50 yards, or, in very exceptional cases, hold the Domestic Service Badge, and have a knowledge of “Swimming Self-taught”.


                Games - by this time books of games were being published.  Some examples from them:

                Whither? - Each Patrol makes up a written description of a journey from the meeting place, with no mention of names of places, roads or buildings/landmarks.  Then each sends one Guide to read their description, slowly, to another Patrol.  The first Patrol to find the correct route of the traveller, and destination, wins.  

                Rummage Race - The Leaders prepare haversacks or tent bags with matching sets of items for each Patrol.  These bags are placed a distance from the Patrols, who have a chalked circle by them for their 'stash'.  Each Guide is then allocated an article to find by touch in their bag, then once the game starts the Guides run up one at a time, find their object by touch, and bring it back to their Patrol 'stash'.  If they lift out a wrong object they have to take it to the stash, then back to the bag, before they can try again to find the right object.  The first Patrol to complete their 'stash' wins.

                Guides in the 1930s

                To become a Guide a girl must be over the age of 11.

                 

                Tenderfoot

                Must know:

                 The Guide Law.   The threefold promise.   The signs and salute.   Must understand the composition of the Union Jack and the right way to fly it.   Must be able to tie four of the following knots and know their uses: Reef, sheet-bend, clove-hitch, bowline, fisherman’s and sheepshank.   Must have one month’s attendance.


                 2nd Class Guide

                I Intelligence

                 Must have passed tenderfoot tests.  Have a further knowledge of the Guide Law.  Must have knowledge of the legends of the crosses of the Union Jack.  Signal the alphabet in Morse (both reading and sending).  Know, from personal observation, six different kinds of living creatures, whether animal or vegetable, and give an account of their life.   Know how to stalk and track, or (for town girls only) street observation of people, or routes of buses.

                II Handicraft

                 Use seven of the following knots: Reef, sheet-bend, clove-hitch, timber-hitch, bowline, sheepshank, fisherman, round turn and two half hitches, overhand, and square lashing.  Lay and light a fire (when possible in the open) using not more than two matches.  Strip and make a bed properly.

                III Health

                 Must show good general carriage, walking and running, or at least have shown that she has made a real effort to improve.   Run a mile (Scout’s pace) in 12 minutes, or skip 100 times without a break (This latter test may be omitted in the case of girls certified physically unfit).

                IV Service

                 Show how to treat simple cuts, and how to stop bleeding (with pad and bandage on the wound only) and choking; remove grit in the eye, and bandage a sprained ankle.  Make a Morse signalling flag (24in by 24in) or alternatively make some other article useful to the company.  Know the rules of health.


                1st Class Guide

                Must be a 2nd Class Guide, and have a good influence in her company.  State briefly the origin of the Guide Movement, and it’s development.

                I Intelligence

                Judge three out of the following five subjects:  Heights, weights, distance, numbers and time.  Two out of three to be within 25 per cent error in each case.  Know 16 points of the compass by the sun and the stars.  Have 1s in the savings bank.  Train a recruit to pass her Tenderfoot test.

                II Handicraft

                Hold Cook, Needlewoman and Child Nurse badges.

                III Health

                Walk two miles in 30 minutes (Scouts’ pace if necessary) and arrive in good condition.  Be able to teach a Tenderfoot the health rules.  Must be able to swim 50 yards.

                IV Service

                Hold the Ambulance or Sick Nurse badge, renewed every other year.  Have an intimate knowledge of the neighbourhood within a radius of half a mile from her home or Guide Headquarters (for country Guides one mile), and be able to direct a stranger to the nearest doctor, fire, ambulance, telephone, police or railway station, or post or telegraph office, pillar box, garage, and nearest place for petrol etc., from any point within that district.  Draw at the examination a rough sketch map which would enable a stranger to find his way from any given point to another.  Take two other Guides (not 1st Class) for a half-day’s hike, when possible following a map.  The examiner, who may accompany or join them at any point, should judge them on their general turnout, organisation, manners, care of other people’s property, clearing up, enjoyment etc., type of food and it’s method of cooking.  Know how to deal with the following: Shock, asphyxiation, (artificial respiration), fire accident or ice accident, unconsciousness from accident, fits, and fainting.


                 Green First Class

                 A lower grade 1st Class badge has now been instituted.  The test is similar to the above with the exception of the swimming qualifications, and is only for those who cannot learn to swim through lack of facilities, in which case the County Commissioner’s permission must be obtained through the usual channels, and only on the recommendation of the local 1st Class Examiner.

                 

                Mauve First Class

                 This badge is awarded to Guides of Extension and ordinary companies who for reasons of ill-health are unable to swim or to take some other part of the First Class Test.  If a doctor’s certificate is given stating that the Ranger or Guide is unable to swim, the Health badge may be taken as an alternative.

                The Mauve First Class badge qualifies for Mauve Cords, but not for All-Round Cords or Gold Cords.


                Games for Guides

                Passing Rope - The Leader winds a rope of 6-7 metres over her arm.  Her Patrol are in file.  At the signal she starts to unwind it from her arm, as she does so she passes the unwound end to the first in the file, each player passes it back to the one at the end, who winds it up on her arm as it reaches her.  As soon as the player at the back has received the end of the rope, she runs to the front of the line and starts unwinding the rope.  repeat until all the Guides have had a turn and the Leader is back at the front of the line.


                Tent Pegging - Guides are in file.  Each Patrol has a matching-size tent peg and mallet.  on the signal the Leader and no1 run up to the mallet, Leader holds the peg and No1 strikes it once with mallet, then Leader strikes it once, then both run back to back of line.  Each player in turn runs up, strikes the peg once, then returns to the back of the file until all have had one turn.  Patrol with the furthest-inserted peg wins.

                Guides in the 1940s


                To become a Girl Guide a girl must be over the age of 10, and she may remain in the company up to the age of 16, with the option of going up to Rangers at the age of 14 or 15 years.

                  

                Tenderfoot

                Know:  The Guide Law.  The threefold promise.  The signs and salute.  Understand the composition of the Union Jack and the right way to fly it.  Tie four of the following knots and know their uses: reef, sheet-bend, clove hitch, double overhand, fisherman’s and sheepshank.  Have one month’s attendance.  Before completing this test, the Guide should have read or been told the legends of the Union Jack saints.


                 2nd Class

                 Before being awarded the 2nd Class Badge the Guide must show that she is trying hard to keep the Threefold Promise.

                I Intelligence

                1 . Have passed the Tenderfoot Test.   2. Receive and answer a message in Morse across a reasonable distance, out of talking range.   3. Recognise twelve living things in their natural surroundings, to include any of the following: animals, birds, fish, insects, reptiles, trees, plants, or constellations.  Discover by observation something of interest about each; Or  Contribute six interesting notes made from personal observation to a Patrol Nature Log Book;  Or  Keen an individual Nature Log Book containing at least fifteen interesting entries made from personal observation;  Or  Stay still alone for half an hour in the open and afterwards report on anything she has seen or heard or smelt.  4. Be able to stalk and track.

                II Handicraft

                 1. Do square lashing and show practical use of six of the following knots: reef, sheet-bend, clove-hitch, timber hitch, bowline, sheepshank, fisherman’s, round turn and two half hitches, and packer’s knot.   2. Make a fire out of doors, using not more than two matches, and cook on it.

                III Health

                1. Know how to be healthy, and show what she is doing to keep the Rules of Health. (The Guide Health Handbook to be used.)  2. Cover a mile at Scout’s Pace in 12 minutes (30 seconds error allowed each way);  Or  Have done four walks of at least three miles.

                IV Service

                1. Treat simple cuts, burns, fainting and choking, and stop bleeding (with pad and bandage on the wound only); know simple treatment of shock; apply large arm sling and bandage a sprained ankle.  2. Make a Morse Signalling Flag (24 in by 24 in), or make some other article useful to others.  3. Strip and make a bed properly, and put her knowledge into practice at home.  4. Be able to telephone, and know the local bus routes.  (Telephoning may be omitted if there is not telephone in the neighbourhood).

                 

                1st Class

                Be a 2nd Class Guide, and have a good influence in her company.  Read Scouting for Boys and state briefly the origin of the Guide Movement, and it’s development.

                I Intelligence

                1. Estimate three of the following: height, weight, distance, number, time.  The percentage of error may not exceed 25 per cent.  2. Use a compass and find the 16 points by the sun and the stars.  3. Understand the meaning of thrift and show that she has endeavoured to prevent waste in six practical ways – three with regard to her own property, and three with regard to that of other people.  4. Train a recruit to pass her Tenderfoot test.

                II Handicraft

                Hold cook, Needlewoman and Child Nurse badges.

                III Health

                1. Walk two miles in 30 minutes (Scout’s pace if necessary) and arrive in good condition.  2. Teach a Tenderfoot the health rules.  3. Swim 50 yards and throw a life line with regularity to reach a person 15 yards away.

                IV Service

                1. Have an intimate knowledge of the neighbourhood within a radius of half a mile from her home or Guide headquarters (for country Guides one mile), and direct a stranger to the nearest doctor, fire, ambulance, telephone, police or railway station, or post or telegraph office, pillar box, garage, and nearest place for petrol, etc., from any point within that district.  Read a map, and know to which places the main roads lead.  2. Draw at the test a rough sketch map which would enable a stranger to find his way from any given point to another.  3. Take two other Guides (not 1st Class) for a half-day’s hike, when possible following a map.  The tester, who may accompany or join them at any point, should judge them on their general turnout, programme, organisation, manners, care of other people’s property, clearing up, enjoyment, etc., type of food and it’s method of cooking.  4. (a) Be prepared to: Treat for shock following accident.  Arrest bleeding from arteries, veins or capillaries.  Trat a patient unconscious from accident, fit or fainting.  Resuscitate the drowning, using Schafer’s method of artificial respiration.  (b) Be able to deal with fire and ice accidents.  Prepare a bed for a stretcher case.  Change the sheets of a helpless patient.  Know how to prevent bedsores.  Use a clinical thermometer.  Make and apply fomentations.

                 

                Green First Class

                 A lower grade 1st Class badge has been instituted.  The test is similar to the above with the exception of the swimming qualifications, and is only for those who cannot learn to swim through lack of facilities, in which case the County Commissioner’s permission must be obtained through the usual channels, and only on the recommendation of the local 1st Class examiner.  This does not qualify for All Round Cords or Gold Cords.

                 

                Blue First Class

                This badge is awarded to Guides in Extension and ordinary companies who for reasons of health are unable to swim or to take some other part of the 1st Class test.  If a doctor’s certificate is given stating that the Guide is unable to swim, the Health badge may be taken as an alternative.  Guides in Extension or ordinary companies, who for reasons of health are unable to take the ordinary 1st Class test, may use the alternatives given in the Extension Book.  The Blue 1st Class badge qualifies for Blue Cords, but not for All Round Cords or Gold Cords.

                 

                Little House Emblem

                Guides who pass the six Homecraft Badges (Cook, Child Nurse, Needlewoman, Laundress, Homemaker and Hostess) qualify for the Little House Emblem.

                 

                All Round Cords

                The candidate must be a First Class Guide and must have completed the test before her seventeenth birthday.

                She must hold the following badges: First Aid or Sick Nurse or Emergency Helper.  Swimmer or Signaller.

                Two other badges chosen by herself, of which one at least must be one of the following outdoor badges: Astronomer, Boatswain, Birdwatcher, Gardener, Hiker, Horsewoman, Landgirl, Naturalist, Pathfinder, Pioneer, Stalker, Woodman.

                Neither the Green nor the Blue First Class badges qualify for All-Round Cords.

                 

                Gold Cords

                1. The candidate must hold All-Round cords and complete the final test before her seventeenth birthday.  2. She must hold: The Little House Emblem.  The Handywoman Badge, and one badge from the following list: Artist, Country Dancer, Dancer, Lace-maker, Music-lover and Minstrel (if these are chosen, both must be taken), Photographer, Player, Reader, Singer, Spinner, Stitchery, Welsh Folk, Writer.  3. Hold the Pioneer Badge, and have a good report from the Commandant of the camp at which she was tested on her standard of dependability, adaptability, punctuality, and general keeping of the Guide Law throughout the camp.  4. Hold the International Knowledge or the Interpreter Badge.  5. Be recommended by her District Commissioner and Captain (with the approval of the Court of Honour) on her standard of: Unselfishness, Courtesy, General appearance (both in and out of uniform).  The Guide should send a general note of any work done for the Company by the candidate, also of any service she has been able to do for others (apart from Guiding) for any period of not less than three months.  6. Finally, the candidate will be examined by a Diploma’d Guider on any work in these tests, and also on her degree of observation and common sense.


                 Blue All-Round Cords

                 Blue Cords are awarded to physically disabled Guides in Extension or ordinary companies who fulfil the following qualifications: Hold the Blue First Class badge and any other seven badges in addition to those in the First Class test.


                Games - during wartime these were often low-equipment games - materials were hard to come by, and indoor meetings were held in halls with blackout curtains up.  Games tended not to mention the war - Guide meetings tended to be a break from 'outside life'.

                Making Words - Each Patrol is supplied with a set of 26 cards, each bearing a letter of the alphabet.  A word is called such as 'badges' and the Patrol must find and hold up the letters to make the word, the first to do so accurately gaining a point.  (Words must be chosen which do not have any repeating letters, and the aim should be words with the right number of letters to allow for one per Patrol member).

                Clumps - Each Patrol sends out one Guide; they all agree on one word, those sent out each return to a Patrol other than their own and ask questions of them to find out what their word is - the Patrol are only allowed to give yes/no answers.  The first to guess the Patrol's word wins.

                Eyes and Noses - The Patrols take it in turns to go behind a screen or curtain with a small hole in it.  Each Guide in turn pokes her nose through the hole.  The Guides from the other Patrols write down the name of the Guide to whom they think the feature belongs.   The Patrol with the most accurate guesses wins.  Eyes, ears, fingers or hands can also be shown instead.

                Guides in the 1950s


                Guides are girls between the ages of 11 and 16.  In exceptional cases, recruits may be accepted at 10 ½, and Guides may go up to Rangers at 14 or 15, but only where special circumstances make this advisable.

                 

                Tenderfoot

                Attend a Guide meeting regularly for at least a month.


                Know:

                The Guide Law.  The threefold promise.  The Motto.  The meaning of the Good Turn.  The signs:

                 (a) Salute, Guide sign, and the handshake.  (b) Whistle and/or hand signals.  (c )Tracking signs.  Understand the composition of the Union Jack, the right way to fly it, and know some of the stories and legends connected with it.  Whip the end of a rope and tie three of the following knots and know their uses: reef, sheetbend, clovehitch, double overhand, and fisherman’s.  Before being enrolled the recruit should be told something of the origin of the Guide movement and the meaning of the Tenderfoot and World Badges.

                 

                2nd Class

                 Before being awarded the 2nd class badge the guide must show that she is trying hard to keep the Threefold Promise.  1. Have passed the Tenderfoot Test.  2. Receive and answer a message in semaphore or Morse out of talking range.  3. Recognise twelve living things and discover, by observation, something of interest about each; Or Keep a short and interesting log book; Or Stay still alone for half an hour in the open and afterwards report on anything she has seen or heard or smelt.   4. Know the stalking positions and have played stalking games.  Follow a trail of woodcraft signs for at least half a mile.  5. Do square lashing and show the practical use of six of the following knots: reef sheet-bend, clovehitch, timber-hitch, bowline, sheepshank, fisherman’s, round turn and two half hitches, and packer’s knot.  6. Make a fire out of doors, using not more than two matches, and cook on it.  7. Know how to be healthy and show what she is doing to keep the Rules of Health.  8. Cover a mile at Scout’s Pace and arrive in good condition.  9. Treat simple cuts, burns, shock, fainting and choking, and stop bleeding (with pad and bandage on the wound only); apply large arm sling and bandage a sprained ankle.  10. Make some useful article.  11. Strip and make a bed properly, and put her knowledge into practice at home.  12. Be able to use a public telephone, know the local bus routes, and demonstrate that she understands the Highway Code as it applies to herself.

                 

                1st Class

                 1. Be a Second Class Guide, show that she is growing in understanding and practice of the Promise and Law, and has a good influence in her company.  2. Have camped for at least a week-end in a Guide Camp.  (Where conditions make this impossible the Commissioner and Camp Adviser may give permission for the Guide to sleep in a hut.)  3. Read Scouting for Boys (Boys’ Edition), or The Life of Baden-Powell (published by the Scouts), or The Wolf that Never Sleeps (published by the Guides), and make a book showing the story of the Guide Movement, including its International aspect.  4. Understand the meaning of thrift and show that she has endeavoured to prevent waste in six practical ways – three with regard to her own property and three with regard to that of other people.  5. (i) Cook’s Test (a) Cook and serve unaided a two-course dinner for a small number.  (Indoors or out as chosen by the candidate).  (b) Answer simple questions to show understanding of a balanced menu.  (ii) Needlewoman’s Test: Make a simple garment, darn a stocking, and patch a worn article.  (iii) Child Nurse Test: (a) Make at the test a time-table for the routine of a child for a day in the summer or winter.  (b) Keep a child or group of children happily occupied for one hour.  This test applies to children aged 3 to 5 years.  Note – Holders of the Cook, Needlewoman and Child Nurse Badges are exempt from these clauses.  6. Go on foot for an expedition of not less than six miles.  7. Have done her best to achieve the standards required by the Health Record Card, and discuss with her Captain it’s practical application.  8. Swim 50 yards.  9. Throw a rope 12 yards (as a life-line or for other useful purposes) with reasonable accuracy and in good style.  10. Have an intimate knowledge of the neighbourhood within a radius of half a mile from her home or Guide HQ (for country Guides one mile) and direct a stranger to the nearest doctor, fire, ambulance, telephone, police or railway station or post or telegraph office, pillar box, garage and nearest place for petrol, etc.  Be able to tell a stranger how long it will take to get there.  Draw at the test a rough sketch map which would enable a stranger to find his way from one given point to another.  The distance to be covered must be indicated.  Know to what places the main roads lead.  11. Use a compass and find the sixteen points by the sun and start.  Read a map.  12. Take two other Guides (not 1st Class) for a half-day’s hike, when possible following a map.  (The tester, who may accompany or join the Guides at any point, should judge them on their general turnout, programme, organisation, manners, core of other people’s property, clearing up, enjoyment, etc., type of food and it’s method of cooking).  13. Be prepared to : Treat for shock following accident; arrest bleeding; treat a patient unconscious from accident, fit or fainting; resuscitate the drowning, using Schafer’s method of artificial respiration.  Know how to deal with fire, ice, and electrical accidents.  14. Change the sheets of a bed with a patient in it.  Show how to prevent bed sores and make an ill or old person comfortable in bed.  Use a clinical thermometer.  Dress a wound.

                 Throughout the test the candidate’s appearance, carriage, courtesy and common sense shall be taken into consideration.

                 

                Green First Class

                 Another grade 1st Class badge has been instituted.  The test is similar to the above with the exception of the swimming qualifications, and is only for those who cannot learn to swim through lack of facilities, in which case the County Commissioner’s permission must be obtained through the usual channels, on the recommendation of the local 1st Class examiner.  This does not qualify for All Round Cords or Queen’s Guide Award.

                 

                Blue First Class

                 This badge is awarded to Guides in Extension and ordinary companies who for reasons of health are unable to swim or to take some other part of the 1st Class test.  If a doctor’s certificate is given stating that the Guide is unable to swim, the Health Badge may be taken as an alternative.  Guides in Extension or ordinary companies who for reasons of health are unable to take the ordinary 1st Class test, may use the alternatives given in the Extension Book.  The Blue 1st Class badge qualifies for Blue Cords, but not for All Round Cords or Queen’s Guide Award.

                 

                Little House Emblem

                 Guides who pass the six Homecraft Badges (Cook, Child Nurse, Needlewoman, Laundress, Homemaker and Hostess) qualify for the Little House Emblem.

                 

                Woodcraft Emblem

                 Guides who pass the following outdoor badges may qualify for the Woodcraft Emblem: Pioneer, Hiker, and two other badges chosen by herself from the following: Astronomer, Birdwatcher, Naturalist, Stalker, Woodman.

                 

                All-Round Cords

                 The candidate must be a First Class Guide and must have completed the test before her seventeenth birthday.

                 She must hold the following badges: First Aid or Sick Nurse or Emergency Helper.  Swimmer or Signaller or Pioneer.  Two other badges chosen by herself, of which one at least must be one of the following outdoor badges: Astronomer, Boatswain, Bird Watcher, Gardener, Hiker, Horsewoman, Land-Girl, Naturalist, Pathfinder, Pioneer, Stalker, Woodman.

                Neither the Green nor the Blue First Class badges qualify for All-Round Cords.

                 

                Blue All-Round Cords

                 Blue All-Round Cords are awarded to physically handicapped Guides in Extension or ordinary companies who fulfil the following qualifications: 1. The candidate must hold the Blue First Class badge, and must complete the test before her seventeenth birthday.  2. She must hold one of the following badges: First Aid, Sick Nurse, Emergency Helper, Sick Nurse (Extension), or Home-Maker (Extension).  3. She must hold three other badges chosen by herself, of which one should be an outdoor badge if possible.

                 

                Queen’s Guide Award

                 The candidate must still be a Guide when she gains the Award, being ready for the final test before her sixteenth birthday.  The application form should be sent in not later than the sixteenth birthday, and the final test completed as soon after sending in the form as possible, taking into consideration the candidate’s school commitments.

                 1. Be a First Class Guide and hold either the Little House or Woodcraft Emblem.  Candidates holding the Little House Emblem must also hold one badge from the Woodcraft Emblem.  2. Be recommended by the Court of Honour and known personally to the District Commissioner, whose responsibility it is to endorse the recommendation.  3. Be capable of a sustained effort of service, to groups or individuals, to consist of: (a) Regular service over a period of twelve weeks in the home, school, church or local community.  (b) At least 12 weeks’ work for an individual or community in the British Commonwealth or Empire overseas.

                 Where the candidate cannot find suitable service for herself (through her own church, school, or friends, etc.) she can apply to the Overseas Department, IHQ.  Such application must be forwarded through the District Commissioner.  Correspondence with a “pen” friend can only be accepted if it has been kept up for a much longer period than the three months, and has had some definite purpose in view.  (c) Three unexpected jobs given by the District Commissioner at different times in this period.  4. Finally, take a “Be Prepared” test, the arrangements for which shall be the responsibility of a Diploma’d Guider or her nominee.


                Games

                Foreign Shopping - Guides in their Patrol corners are shopkeepers.  One person in turn from each Patrol is the 'foreign shopper' who has no English, the Guider supplies each with an item to buy, they go back to their Patrol and mime what they want.  Once she is successful, the next player approaches the Guider for another item.  The first Patrol to 'buy' all the items on the Guider's list wins. 


                Cat and Mouse - All the Guides but two stand in a grid formation with outstretched arms, so that they are an arm's width apart and can just touch fingers with those either side in the row and (if they turn 90 degrees) with those in the column.  One of the two players standing out is the cat, the other is the mouse.  The cat chases the mouse in and out along the rows, but if the Leader calls 'change', all those in the grid turn 90 degrees, and cat and mouse must now chase among the columns.  Neither cat nor mouse can break through the hands in the grid.  If the cat catches the mouse, they immediately swap roles.  Once the 'reverse catch' is made, they swap with two of the players in the grid.


                Guides in the 1960s


                A Guide is a girl between the ages of 11 and 16, but a recruit may be accepted at 10 1/2.  With the approval of both the Ranger Captain and the Guide Captain a Guide may join a Ranger unit at 14.

                 

                Tenderfoot

                 1. Attend Guide meetings regularly for at least a month.  2. Know the Threefold Promise; the Guide Law; and the Motto.  3. Understand the meaning of the Good Turn; the Guide Salute, Sign and Handshake.  4. Know the whistle and hand signals; and the tracking signs.  5. Know the composition of the Union Jack and of the flag of her own country; the right way to fly them; some of the stories and legends connected with them.  6. Whip the end of a rope; tie a reef knot, a double overhand knot and a round turn and two half hitches.  7. Strip and make a bed.  Before being enrolled the recruit should be told something of the origin of the Guide Movement and the meaning of the Guide and World Badges.


                 Second Class

                 The candidate must show that she is trying to keep the Threefold Promise.

                 1. Have passed the Tenderfoot Test.  2. Recognise twelve of the following in their natural surroundings: trees, flowers, birds, insects, stars etc. (at least six to be of the same kind).  Discover through her own observation something interesting about each.  3. Stalk a person or animal for fifteen minutes.  4. Light a fire out of doors using not more than two matches; cook on it.  5. Hoist colours.  Demonstrate square lashing for some practical purpose.  Using a packer’s knot or some other slip knot, tie up a parcel or rope a camp bedding roll.  6. Describe from memory twenty-five out of thirty objects as in Kim’s Game.  7. Cover a mile at Scout’s pace showing good running and walking.  8. Prove that in one definite way she has tried to improve her standard of fitness.  9. Show how to treat: cuts, burns, shock, and fainting.  Apply a large arm sling.  Bandage a sprained ankle.  10. Deliver a message by public telephone.

                 

                First Class

                Throughout the test the candidate’s appearance, carriage, courtesy and common sense are to be taken into consideration.

                 1. (a) Have passed the Second Class Test.  (b) Show that she is growing in understanding and practice of the Promise and Law, and has a good influence in the company.  2. Have camped at least a week-end in a Guide camp.  (If this is impossible, the Commissioner and Camp Adviser may give permission for the Guide to sleep in a hut.)  3. (a) Read Scouting for Boys (Boys’ Edition) or The wold that Never Sleeops, or another life of Baden-Powell.  (b) Prove her knowledge of the origin and history of the Guide Movement, including the international aspect.  Note: This may be done in a way chosen by the candidate and approved by the Commissioner, such as compiling a book or giving a talk.  4. Understand the meaning of thrift and show that she has endeavoured to prevent waste in six practical ways; three with regard to her own property and three in regard to that of other people.  5. Cook Test: (a) Cook and serve unaided a two-course dinner for a small number (Indoors or out as chosen by the candidate).  (b) Answer simple questions to show understanding of a balanced menu.  Alternative: Hold the Cook badge.  6. Needlewoman Test: Make a simple garment, darn a stocking, and patch a worn article.   Alternative: Hold the Needlewoman badge.  7. Child Nurse Test: (a) Make at the test a timetable for the routine of a child for a day in summer or winter.  (b) Keep a child or group of children aged 3 to 5 years happily occupied for one hour.  Alternative: Hold the Child Nurse badge.  8. Go on foot for an expedition of not less than 6 miles.  9. Know the Rules of Health and prove that she is trying to keep them.  10. Swim 50 yds.  11. Throw a rope accurately three times out of four: (a) over a beam or branch approximately three times the height of the candidate.  (b) within easy reach of a person 12yds away.  Note: the line may be weighted with a suitable light object.  12. Have an intimate knowledge of the neighbourhood within a radius of half a mile (town) or one mile (country) of her home or Guide HQ.  Direct a stranger to the nearest doctor, telephone, pillar box, post and/or telegraph office; garage and/or petrol filling station; fire, ambulance, police and railway stations, etc.; give approximate time needed to reach each place.  At the test draw a rough sketch map showing the way and the distance from one given point to another.  Know to what places the main roads lead.  13. Use a compass and find sixteen points by the sun and stars.  Read a map.  14. Take two Guides (not First Class) for a half-day hike, when possible following a map.  Note: The tester may accompany or join the Guides at any point.  They are to be judged on general turnout, programme, organisation, manners, care of other people’s property, clearing up, enjoyment, type of food and method of cooking.  15. Be prepared to treat for chock following an accident; arrest bleeding; treat a patient unconscious from accident, fit or fainting; resuscitate the apparently drowned, using the Holger Neilsen method of artificial respiration.  Know how to deal with fire, ice, and electrical accidents.  16. Change the sheets of a bed with the patient in it.  Show how to prevent bed sores and make an ill or old person comfortable in bed.  Use a clinical thermometer.  Dress a wound.

                 

                Blue First Class

                 This badge is awarded to Guides in Extension and other companies who for reasons of health are unable to swim or to take some other part of the First Class Test.  The Health badge may be taken as an alternative to the swimming clause; a doctor’s certificate is required.  The Blue First Class qualifies for Blue Cords, but not for All-Round Cords or Queen’s Guide.

                 

                Queen’s Guide

                 1. Be a First Class Guide and show that she is trying to carry out the Guide ideals of service in the community, i.e. at home, at school or work, and at her place of worship.  2. (a) Organise and take charge of a patrol camp, either as part of the Patrol Camp Permit test or after gaining the Permit; or hold the Woodcraft Emblem.  (b) Hold the Little House Emblem.  (c )Hold one of the following badges: Emergency Helper, First Aid, Lifesaver, Rescuer, Sick Nurse.  (d) Hold the Commonwealth Knowledge badge.  (e) Hold any two badges of her own choice.  3. For a period of at least three months undertake some form of sustained service to an individual or group connected with her home, school, work, place of worship or local community.  4. During the time that she is a Queen’s Guide candidate use her badge skills and knowledge to give service in one of the following ways, to be selected by the District Commissioner: (a) Look after one or two children for a day to give the mother a rest.  (b) Help to look after an elderly or sick person for a day. (c ) Work for a day in a hospital or a home for old people or children.

                 (d) Work for a day, for somebody who needs the help, at one of the following: spring-cleaning, interior decorating, cooking, gardening.  (e) Help for a day in improving the County, Division or District camp site, or with repairing, checking, packing and otherwise maintaining the County, Division, or District camp equipment.  (f) Make a useful woodcraft collection and take or send it to an Extension or town company of pack.  (g) Spend a day, or two half-days, with one or two other Guides in collecting and stacking a supply of kindling and logs for an elderly or other person who needs the help.  (h) Conduct a visitor from another country on a comprehensive sighseeing tour of her own neighbourhood or of a nearby town or city.

                 The whole test must be completed before the candidate’s sixteenth birthday, while she is still a Guide.

                 

                The Little House Emblem

                 The Little House Emblem is awarded to a Guide who gains the following badges: Child Nurse, Cook, Homemaker, Hostess, Laundress, Needlewoman.

                 

                The Woodcraft Emblem

                 The Woodcraft Emblem is awarded to a Guide who gains the Camper and Hiker badges and two of her own choice from the following: Bird Watcher, Map Reader, Naturalist, Pioneer, Stalker, Star Gazer, Woodman.

                 

                All-Round Cords

                 All-Round Cords are awarded to a First Class Guide who gains one badge from each of the following sections, before her seventeenth birthday: 1. Emergency Helper, First Aid, Sick Nurse.  2. Camper, Handywoman, Life-Saver, Pathfinder, Swimmer.  3. Bird Watcher, Boatswain, Camper, Gardener, Hiker, Horsewoman, Land-Girl, Map Reader, Naturalist, Pathfinder, Pioneer, Stalker, Star Gazer, Woodman.  4. One of her own choice which may or may not be listed above.

                 

                Blue All-Round Cords

                 Blue All-Round Cords are awarded to a Guide who holds the Blue First Class and gains the badges specified below before her seventeenth birthday:

                 1. One of the following : Emergency Helper, First Aid, Sick Nurse, Homemaker (Extension), Sick Nurse (Extension).  2. Three of her own choice, one of which should if possible be an outdoor badge.


                Games

                Alert Circle - Guides are in a circle and numbered consecutively.  The Leader calls out any two consecutive numbers, and those Guides make an arch.  The Guides on either side of them (those numbered one lower and one higher than the two numbers called) go through the arch and run round the circle in opposite directions.(so the one numbered higher would run anticlockwise, the one numbered lower clockwise) and the first back in place gets a point.  

                Ball Chase - there are two balls of different colours (e.g. red and blue).  Players are named alternately red, blue, round the circle.  When the game starts each ball is thrown clockwise round the circle by players of the appropriate colour, the object of the game is for your ball to overtake the other, with points being scored each time this occurs.  If wished, a rule can be added that when the Leader blows her whistle, the direction of travel for the balls is reversed.

                Guides in the 1970s

                Guides are aged 10-15 years, and can join Rangers from 14.

                Pre-Promise Challenge (in each case the unit can choose an alternative challenge).
                Enjoying the Out of Doors:
                Take an active part in the Patrol on an outdoor activity (expedition, wide game, cooking, pioneering, etc).  Or Learn something that would be useful out-of-doors (firelighting, using a compass, trail-making, weather signs etc.)  Or Learn more about something you find out-of-doors (trees, birds, stars, rocks etc.)
                Keeping Fit
                Show in a game or agility challenge that you are lively and energetic.  Or Keep a record for a week to show you can keep up a daily good-health habit (outdoor exercise, avoiding sweets, having enough sleep, etc) Or Show each week at meetings that you have taken trouble to look clean, neat, and suitably dressed.
                Thinking for Yourself
                Join fully in a game or Patrol activity where you have to use your mind (remembering, noticing, using your imagination, etc.)  Or Learn something by heart which will help you as a Guide (the Laws, a Patrol or Guide song, the meaning of the World Badge, etc.)
                Giving Service
                Join in a Patrol Good Turn or Service Enterprise.  Or Learn something that is useful in giving service.  Or Think of, and carry out, a personal piece of service.
                Exploring the Arts
                Make something yourself and show it to your Patrol (picture; model; poem; wooden article; toy, etc.)  Or Join in with your Patrol in a play, dance, song etc.
                Becoming a Home-Maker
                Undertake a new regular job at home (making your bed; tidying your drawers; cutting grass; cleaning the bath, etc.)  Or learn to do something useful in homemaking (how to cook something; how to make a bed properly; how to repair a household article, etc.).  Or join in with your Patrol in an activity about home-making.
                Keeping the Laws
                Learn the ten Laws by heart.  Or read the chapter in the handbook called "Living is Choosing".  Or think of something connected with one of the Laws that you will undertake to do while you are preparing to be a Guide (Exercising the family dog; getting up as soon as called; being punctual, etc.).  
                Getting to Know People
                Join in with your Patrol at a Patrol meeting, discussion, challenge etc.  Or Learn the names, schools, etc. of all your Patrol.  Or Do a job for your Patrol (bring something needed; make something; deliver a message, etc.).  Or Make friends with a newcomer from abroad.

                Thereafter there are four yearly Eight Point Badges - first yellow, then green, then red, then blue.  There were no set challenges for these.  There were also Patrol Interest Pennants for Guide Patrols to work on together, with the highest award being Queen's Guide.

                Games
                Tip (from Denmark) - Seven small objects are put on a table, e.g. sweets, pencils, etc.  One member of the Patrol turns away while the rest choose one of the objects to be the 'forbidden' object.  The player turns back and starts picking up the objects one at a time until she touches the forbidden object, when all the others call out 'Tip' and she must stop.  The objects are then put back ready for the next player to try.  The aim is to pick up all seven objects - if sweets are used then those which are picked up can be eaten!
                Empty The Basket - One Guide has the basket (or box, bucket, tin) filled with balls of all sorts and sizes.  In two minutes her challenge is to empty all of the balls out of the box - but she may not tip the basket up or shake all the balls out together - she has to throw them out one at a time.  Meantime the rest of the Guides try to field and return balls to the basket - they are not allowed to touch the Guide or the basket in doing so.  If the Guide momentarily succeeds in emptying the basket she gets a point and chooses the next Guide to try, until all have had a turn.
                Guides in the 1980s

                Pre-Promise Challenge
                Enjoying the Out of Doors
                Join with your Patrol on an outdoor activity.  Or Learn something that will be useful out-of-doors.  Or Learn more about something you find out-of-doors.
                Keeping Fit
                Show in a game of agility challenge that you are lively and energetic.  Or Keep a record for a week to show you can keep up a daily good health habit.  Or Show each week at meetings that you have taken trouble to look clean, neat and suitably dressed.
                Thinking for Yourself
                Join in a game or Patrol activity where you have to use your memory, or stop and think.  Or Learn something by heart that will help you as a Guide.
                Giving Service
                Join in a Patrol Good Turn or Service Project.  Or Learn something that will be useful in giving service.  Or Think of, and carry out, a personal piece of service.
                Exploring the Arts
                Make something yourself and show it to your Patrol.  Or Join with your Patrol in a play, dance, song etc.  Or Write a story, poem or play and share it with your Patrol.
                Becoming a Homemaker
                Undertake a new regular job at home.  Or Learn how to do something useful in homemaking.  Or Join with your Patrol in a homecraft activity.
                Keeping the Laws
                Learn the 10 Laws by heart. Or Think of something connected with one of the Laws that you will undertake to do while you are preparing to be a Guide. Or Choose the Law that you find most difficult and try to keep it.
                Getting to Know People
                Join in with your Patrol at a Patrol meeting or discussion.  Or Learn something interesting about each member of your Patrol, etc.  Or Do a job for your Patrol or find out about Baden-Powell and the early days of Guiding.

                Yellow Trefoil Badge
                Take part in at least 6 activities with your Patrol.  Gain at least 2 interest badges.  Try two of the following: Tie a camp bedding roll properly OR Know how to tie a reef, sheet bend, round turn and two half hitches, and clove hitch, and when to use each one. OR Use your neckerchief as a triangular bandage in three different ways. OR Wash and iron a garment of your own.  Meeting a challenge set by your Guider or Patrol Leaders' Council.  As soon as you start working towards your Yellow Trefoil Badge write down your first target from the suggestions,  (Note - as soon as you have reached one target set yourself another and see how many targets you can reach in the twelve months.)

                Green Trefoil Badge
                Take as full a part in possible in everything your Patrol does during the twelve months.  If possible take a really responsible part in some of these activities.  Gain at least two badges (perhaps one of these could be a Service Badge, or a Patrol Purpose Patch, or one of the Religious Knowledge Badges).  Challenge yourself to learn something really new during the twelve months in the sphere of cookery, music, art or craft.  Join in a Service Project with your Patrol or your Unit.  Meet a challenge set by your Guider or Patrol Leaders' Council.  Set yourself targets choosing from the suggestions - of course these will be different from any you chose for your Yellow Badge.  Write your targets down.   As soon as you have reached one target set yourself another and see how many targets you can reach in the twelve months.

                Red Trefoil Badge
                Take more responsibility in your Patrol and organise some of the activities your Patrol chooses.  (Try using the ideas in the Patrol Ideas Packs.)  Introduce something new to your Patrol or your Unit.  Decide on a particular part of the Programme and make as much progress as you can in it during the twelve months.  Do two of the following activities: Light a fire out of doors and cook on it. OR Learn to use a Silva Compass and use your knowledge in a practical way. OR Know your neighbourhood well enough to be able to direct a stranger.  OR Fit up and be able to use a pocket first aid kit suitable for hiking.  Meet a challenge set by your Guider or Patrol Leaders.  Set your own targets choosing suggestions from the ideas chapter, Today's Guide, the Patrol Ideas Packs or any other useful source.  This time, as you write down your choice, think about the stages you will need to work through to reach your target.  Write the stages down and show them to your Patrol and your Guider.

                The Baden-Powell Trefoil Badge
                While working for the badge: 1. Present in an interesting way, on a suitable occasion agreed by your Guider, all you can about the history of Guiding.  2. Use what you have learned as a Guide so far to help your Patrol to undertake one of the following activities: a) A Patrol Purpose Patch, b) A Patrol Interest Pennant, c) A Patrol project of a similar kind to a or b.  3. Hold the Service Emblem and the Service Flash.  4. Take up a new hobby or learn a new craft of your own choice and tell your Patrol from time to time how you are progressing.  5a) Take one badge involving homecraft skills.  b) Take on a new homecraft responsibility in your home or Unit acceptable to your family and your Guider and do it to the best of your ability for at least four months.  6a) Take a full part in a Guide Camp or an equivalent Guide residential event.  b) Take an outdoor badge.  7a) Look wider and find out about Guiding in two other countries (one to be a Commonwealth country) and share your findings with your Company.  b) Take one of the following badges: Commonwealth Badge, World Association Badge, Europe Badge.  8a) Find out as much as you can about the Ranger Guide Section from the Ranger Guide Handbook and visit a Ranger Guide Unit.  b) Find out about the Young Leader's Scheme and discuss it with a Young Leader.

                Games
                Cat & Mouse - All the Guides but 2 are lined up in a grid formation, an arm's length apart in each direction, with their arms sticking out to the sides.  They all start facing in the same direction, when the Leader shouts 'change' all the Guides in the lines take a quarter turn to the right.  The two players standing out are named cat, and mouse.  Cat chases mouse up and down between the lines, but cannot break through outstretched hands - and when the lines move, so does the direction in which they can run.  If the cat catches the mouse they swap roles, if a second catch happens then the cat and mouse swap places with two of the people in the lines.
                Port Starboard - All of the Guides obey the instructions, and the last to react (or anyone who reacts whilst 'frozen') is out.  The Leader points out which sides of the room will be considered port and starboard, and which ends are bow and stern, which players can be directed to run to.  Then the other actions to be used are explained: Captain's Coming - all salute and say "aye, aye sir".  Climb The Rigging - all mime climbing a rope ladder.  Scrub The Decks - all mime scrubbing the floor with a scrubbing brush.  Man The Lifeboats - players sit on the floor in pairs, feet to feet, grasp hands, and rock back and forth to imitate rowing on a shared pair of oars.  Bombers Overhead - all lie face down on the floor with hands on heads.  Submarines - all lie on backs on the floor, with one leg raised up straight.  Mother & Child -players in pairs with one giving the other a piggyback.  
                Guides in the 1990s
                Guides in the 2000s

                Guide Challenge Badge
                To be completed by an individual over a 12 month period. 
                1. Complete at least two Go For Its! with your Patrol and help to decide what you do.  If you have used a Go For It! successfully for four Patrol times, the Go For It! is completed.  2. Be a reliable member of your Patrol.  Talk to your Patrol about what it is like to belong to that team and make one suggestion for improvement.  Sign and keep the unit's Guidelines.  If you have found the Guidelines sometimes difficult to keep, discuss this with your Patrol and make suggestions for changes.  3. Complete two activities outside your meeting place.  4. Take part in a community activity which involves doing something for somebody else.  5. Share with your Patrol your favourite Guiding experiences over the past 12 months.  If possible put a message about your favourite experience on the guestbook of The Guide Association web site.

                Colours - 1st blue/green, 2nd lilac/pink, 3rd lilac/purple, 4th white/gold.

                Baden-Powell Challenge
                To start the Baden-Powell Challenge you need to: Have made your Promise.  Have at least two Guide Challenge Badges.  Have at least two Interest Badges
                Complete at least ten clauses, comprising at least one from each zone.  The remainder can come from any zone, or from Country, Region or Association challenges.  Once the ten clauses are completed you should take part in a Baden-Powell Challenge Adventure.

                Healthy Lifestyles Zone
                1. Organise and run a Patrol competition based on the programme Ready Steady Cook.  2. Learn or make up a dance routine and teach it to your Patrol.  Organise a Patrol dance session.  3. Run an activity session for your Patrol on an issue which concerns young people today.  4. Help to organise a sports competition with another Patrol or other Guide unit, eg mini Olympics or team games evening.  5. Undertake a Patrol survey to compare what you eat.  Find out how what you eat and your lifestyle can affect your health.  6. Learn how to massage your hands or feet and organise a manicure or pedicure session for your Patrol.  7. Plan and carry out with your Patrol a reflections session around a chosen theme using mime, readings, music, dance, slides etc.
                Global Awareness Zone
                1. Find out about children from a developing country and the life they lead.  Organise an activity for your Patrol or unit which will help somebody in a developing country, eg via Book Aid International, Tools for Self Reliance, Intermediate Technology.  Through your Guider, let your International Adviser know what you are doing.  2. Complete one of the following: World Cultures Badge, World Guiding Badge, World Issues Badge or World Traveller Badge.  3. With your Patrol, organise an international evening with games, crafts, food or music and dance.  4. Design a poster on a current global issue and use it to make a presentation to your Patrol.  5. Survey what Fair Trade articles are available in your local area, eg in your local supermarket.  Find out about Fair Trade on the Internet or from your local library.  Organise an activity about Fair Trade with your unit.
                Discovery Zone
                1. Make a bivouac and spend the night in it.  Make your own breakfast the following morning.  2. Start a new hobby or craft or extend an existing one and work on it for at least three months, eg glass painting, learning a musical instrument, football, candle making, rollerblading, star-gazing.  Find out about your hobby's origins, history and rules.  3. Stay at two youth hostels and share your experiences with your Patrol.  4. Visit a city farm, rescue centre or nature reserve, and share your experiences with your Patrol.  5. Try an adventurous activity which is new to you eg canoeing, sailing, rock-climbing or skiing - share with your Patrol what you enjoyed most.  Know the safety rules relating to this activity.  6. Set up or further develop an existing unit or Patrol web site.
                Skills and Relationships Zone
                1. Organise a party for someone outside your unit, eg your local Brownies, your family, girls not normally involved in Guiding, or have a bring-a-friend party.  2. Organise a co-operative games evening for your unit, eg parachute games.  3. Help organise and go on a trip with your Patrol to see something special.  4. Find out about local community services available for young people.  Get together with local young people and organise a discussion to find out about local issues and what you can all do to assist.  5. Organise a relaxation/meditation session for your Patrol.  You could include music, poems, readings, slides of relaxing scenes, candles, etc.  6. Organise an activity based on today's clothing, eg analyse what is suitable for certain activities, what's fashionable and what makes you feel good.  Present your findings in a fun way.  7. Raise money to take part in a Baden-Powell Challenge Adventure.
                Celebrating Diversity Zone
                1. Celebrate with your Patrol or unit a festival from a culture other than your own, eg Diwali, harvest festival, Chinese New Year, Thai Festival of Lights.  2. Attend an event with friends, eg theatre, ballet, open-air concert, pop concert.  Record your thoughts and impressions and share them with your Patrol, Young Leader or Guider.  3. Prepare an activity for your Patrol on the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, eg baloon debate, game, etc.  4. Complete the Culture Badge.  5. Take part in some practical activity for the environment in your local community, eg tree or bulb planting or nature conservation.

                Games
                Chair Basketball - Players are split in two teams - one team wears a distinguishing mark such as bibs.  Each team chooses a 'goalkeeper' who stands on a chair at one end of the playing area, The other players from both teams sit on chairs in the playing area - once the teams have arranged their players, they must stay in the same place until 'half time'.  The Leader throws the ball into the playing area and, staying seated, the players must battle for the ball, and then pass it towards their 'goalkeeper'.  If the goalkeeper catches the ball, a 'basket' is credited to their team, and the Leader throws the ball in again.  
                Kim's Chairs - The Patrols are lined up in file, with a solid-backed chair several metres in front of each Patrol and facing away from them, and another solid-backed chair several metres behind each Patrol, facing away from them.  Each front chair contains a matching selection of objects, such as a red pen, safety pin, plastic cup, etc.  The Leader calls out one of the objects, and the first player in the Patrol line runs to the chair the object is on, collects it, and transfers it to her Patrol's other chair, then runs to the end of the Patrol line - the first person back gains a point for her team.  (Naturally, over time some objects are on the front chair and some on the rear, such that a player who can remember what is where and head to the right chair first will be able to beat a faster runner who heads in the wrong direction first . . .)

                Senior Guides/Rangers in the 1910s


                Cadets were founded in 1916.  The aim behind the establishments was for the girls to learn good leadership – not just knowing what activities were in the Guide programme and the surface of learning Morse or tying knots, but understanding the inner meaning which lay behind the tests – the stick-ability and concentration it took to memorise something complex like Morse, the manual dexterity it took to learn to tie knots well – but deeper than that, why those qualities mattered.  She was expected to demonstrate discipline, responsibility, sympathy and fairness, and to understand the principles of how to lead – “come on, not go on”. 


                 According to the 1918 handbook:

                “The unit for Cadets is either a Patrol of eight under a Patrol Leader; or

                A half Company of two Patrols commanded by a Lieutenant; or

                A Company of three or more Patrols under a Captain.

                Age – 16 or over.

                Uniform – Gymnastic uniform of the school or the Girl Guide uniform with a white hatband round the hat.

                Badges – Badges of proficiency as for Guides or Senior Guides.

                Training – In all the different activities as laid down for Guides, Brownies, and Senior guides, but with the addition of practice in giving instruction in them.  A Cadet is expected as a point of honour to do her best to help the Guide movement after she has left school.  A certificate is awarded to a Cadet on leaving school to show to what extent she has been trained in Guide work, and a recommendation of her is sent to the Guide Commissioner of the district in which she will live so that they can mutually get in touch.  Thus she will have the opportunity of doing a big thing for herself, for her sisters, and for her country.”


                 Senior Guides were founded in 1917.  They were designed to cater for the older members of the Guide Company, or for new recruits to Guides who were over 16.  The idea was either that there would be a Senior Guide Patrol within a Guide Company, or that a separate Senior Guide Company could be formed if numbers were sufficient. 

                According to the 1918 Handbook:

                Public Service – Each Senior Patrol should, where possible, take up some definite form of public service as a squad, for any duty such as the following: Accident and First Aid Corps.  Hospital Ward Maids.  Women Police Assistants.  Medical Almoners.  Child Welfare Duty.  Hut Service for Munition Workers or Troops.  School for Mothers Staff.  Creche Workers.


                Company Duty – When Senior Guides form a Patrol in a Guide Company, they act as assistants to the Guiders in taking charge of different departments of Administration, such as Games, Club Premises, Finance, Company Equipment, Entertainments, Library, Coffee Bar, etc.  The “Senior Leader” acts as the Captain’s right hand in detail work in the Company.


                A Company of Senior Guides works much on the lines of a Guide Company, using similar tests for first and second class promotion, but working for proficiency badges on a higher standard in the subjects given below. 


                The idea was that the Senior Guide Patrol would be a games team who would challenge other teams at sport, and a study circle working on proficiency badges.  Those who had left school and started work could earn a “Trade Badge” related to their work (it should be remembered that at that time the earliest school leaving age was 14, so a significant proportion of the Senior Guides would be established in careers (whilst possibly also attending night school) whereas others would be in the senior forms at boarding schools.


                Games

                Housekeeping - "Nothing whatever in the house for tea or dinner or supper!  Here is a shilling.  Now, Patrols, go for it, what will you buy with it for tea (or supper, etc.), for two people?"

                The Latest - "Each brings an old well illustrated fashion catalogue.  Ten minutes can be given, during which the various garments are cut out.  Captain then collects all the cut-outs and deals them round one at a time, indiscriminately.  The game consists in making the best outfit possible with the items which have been dealt to each.  What will you do with 3 boots, 1 glove, a pair of knickers and a hat?"

                Misfits - "Each Rangers chooses a shop and makes a list of, say, 5 articles which she sells.  Any article from a magazine or newspaper is read aloud by the Captain.  At frequent intervals she pauses, pointing each time at a different Ranger, who must say one of the words on her list.  Such substitutes for the actual printed words are often very ludicrous."

                Rangers/Cadets in the 1920s


                According to Policy, Organisation and Rules in 1921:


                Cadet Corps

                Patrols of six or eight girls under a selected Leader.  Two Patrols form a half company, under a Lieutenant.  More than three Patrols for a Company, under a Captain.

                Every member must be at least sixteen years of age and a Second Class Guide.


                Senior Guides (renamed Ranger Guides in July 1920).

                For members aged 16-30.

                Any girl over 16 is eligible for promotion as a Ranger.  Where there are enough Rangers in a Company they may form a Ranger Patrol under their own Patrol Leader, also separate Companies of Rangers can be formed. 


                Tenderfoot Test (as for Guides)

                Must know the Guide Law, Promise and Salute.  Must understand the composition of the Union Jack, and the right way to fly it.  Must be able to tie four of the following knots: Reef, Sheet-bend, Clove-hitch, Bowline, Fisherman’s and Sheepshank.  Elementary Guide Drill.  Must have one month’s attendance.


                Ranger Test (corresponding to Second Class Test for Junior Guides)

                Any eight of the following tests (two from each of the four headings) entitle to Ranger badge.


                INTELLIGENCE

                1. Be able to answer simple questions on the aims, methods and organisation of the Guide Movement.  2. Signal and read simple messages in Morse; or Show a knowledge of one of the books from the list give n below; or Have visited six places of interest in the neighbourhood and know their history.  3. Know six different kinds of crops or vegetables, and methods of cultivation; or Grow a plant (flower or vegetable) from see, either in a pot or in the open ground.  Bring plant to examination or notes describing it’s growth, with dates; or, Keep a pet and know how to treat it.  Know the species to which it belongs, and its habits in a wild state.

                HANDICRAFTS

                1. Tie seven knots; or Splice a rope and make a Turk’s head.  2. Make a garment, or any useful article for the home or clubroom (basket work, carpentering, embroidery etc.  3. Be able to hem, darn and patch, or  Be able to clean metal and remove stains from dress material.

                SERVICE

                1. Know the proper methods of feeding, bathing and dressing a baby of nine months, and describe a day in the life of a healthy child of three years old.  2. Know the general rules for the treatment of fainting, fits, burns and scalds, and how to stop bleeding.  3. Conduct a team game.

                HEALTH

                1. Know how to prepare a sick room, and make a bed with a patient in it.  2. Know three country dances, or swim 25 yards; or go for, and describe minutely and accurately, a five-mile walk.  3. Perform at least three physical exercises, with full understanding of the anatomical and hygienic value of each movement.


                Ranger Star

                CHARACTER

                Must have been an active member of the Company for 18 months.  Must have passed Senior Guide Test.  A two-thirds majority of the Company must be of the opinion that she has tried to live up to the ideals of the Guides for the previous six months.  Must, unless under very special circumstances, have paid in regularly to some Savings Bank for six months.  (This to include regular payment to Camp fund or similar forms of saving).

                INTELLIGENCE

                Bring in a recruit properly trained.  Invent a game and teach it to her Patrol; or Get 80 per cent in an observation game.  Speak for not less than three minutes on Citizenship, the Aims of the Guide Movement, any Natural History Subject, or Give an Account, gleaned from the newspapers, of a Month’s Current Events; or Tell a story on a Guide Law for not less than three minutes; or Draw a sketch to illustrate an incident of Guide life.  Be able to sing four songs from the Guide Song Book, or four folk songs; or Act with her Patrol an illustration of a guide law, or a scene from local history, for not less than 15 minutes; or Hold Book-lover’s Badge; or Recite not less than 50 lines from one of Shakespeare’s plays.  Must have spent at least half a day alone or with only one companion in the country, cooking her own food, and observing the wild birds and animals, plants and flowers, and write a report on what she has observed; or where this is not possible,  Must have spent not less than an hour in observing a bird or animal in its native haunts, and write an account of what she has noticed for herself; or Must have tamed a wild animal or bird herself.  (This does not mean keeping it in a cage, but teaching it to come for its food at certain times).

                HANDICRAFT

                Hold the following (Junior) badges: Ambulance, Sick Nurse, Child Nurse, Cook, Needlewoman

                SERVICE

                Be responsible for the cleanliness, order and beautifying of the clubroom for one month; or Do some definite extra piece of work for others, either indoors or out of doors, every day for one month; or Help at a playground or play-centre at least once a week for three months.  Be able to guide a stranger to the Parish Church, Town Hall (or village hall), Fire and Police Stations, nearest P.O., Doctor, Chemist, Garage and principal food and provision merchants.  Describe the architecture and know the history of the Parish Church and any interesting buildings in the neighbourhood, and make a sketch map of the district for half a mile (one mile in the country) round Company Headquarters.

                HEALTH

                Be able to swim 50 yards; or Know 10 country dances.  Show a thorough knowledge of the six Rules of Health (fresh air, cleanliness, exercise, food, rest and clothing) and be able to explain them to her Patrol.


                Sea Guides

                Sea Guides are a branch of the Rangers, and to become a Sea Guide a girl must be over the age of 16.


                Sea Service Badge

                This will correspond to King’s Scout in the Sea Scouts.  It will consist of a crown and anchor, in bright blue.  The qualifications are:

                Must have passed the Senior Guide test, and have earned one Trade Badge.  Must have passed four of the following Tests, one from each group: 1. Pilot (as for Scouts), Boatswain (as for Guides).  2. Signaller (as for Senior Guides), Decoder (new badge test).  3. Swimmer (as for Guides), Rescuer (as for Scouts).  4. Astronomer (as for Guides), Sportswoman (as for Guides)


                Games

                The Zoo - Each Ranger is secretly given the name of a bird or animal.  On the Captain's whistle every one at once makes the noise of her animal, for one minute.  At that time the Captain blows her whistle, and each Ranger must write a list of all the animals or birds she could hear.

                Where Am I - Each Ranger chooses a place in the town she knows well.  One imagines herself in her chosen place and starts describing what she would see around her at that place.  The first Ranger to correctly identify the location calls it out, and gets the next turn of describing her chosen place.

                Rangers/Cadets in the 1930s


                Cadet Rangers are specially organised with a view to training for service in the Guide Movement.

                Sea Rangers bring a new element into Guiding by combining the spirit of the sea with the spirit of the Guides.

                Any girl over 16 is eligible for enrolment in a Ranger company.

                A Ranger Patrol (of 6 to 8) may be attached to any Guide company, but in this case opportunity must be given for separate training.


                Cadet Ranger Companies

                Cadet Ranger companies may be formed in school, college or district where there are a number of Guides over 16 who desire to learn to help in the Guide Movement.  Cadets should qualify in the various Guide activities and aim at a standard which will enable them to train others. 


                Tenderfoot Test (for all Rangers)

                Must know the Guide Law, Promise, Signs and Salute.  Must understand the composition of the Union Jack and the right way to fly it.  Must know the three slings (St John’s, Large Arm and Small Arm) with their uses.  Must have one month’s attendance.


                Ranger Test

                Must be able to answer simple questions on the aims, methods and organisation of the Guide Movement, and pass any eight of the following tests (two from each of the four headings).

                I Intelligence

                1. Signal and read simple messages in Morse, or Have visited six places of interest in the neighbourhood and know their history.  2. Know six different kinds of crops or vegetables, and methods of cultivation, or Grow a plant (flower or vegetable) from seed or bulb either in a pot or in the open ground.  Bring plans to examination and notes describing it’s growth, with dates; or Know six trees by their leaves, flowers, fruit and twigs, and be able to recognise them at fifty yards distance; or Be able to point out and name at least six constellations.

                II Handicraft

                1. Tie seven knots.  2. Make a garment, or any useful article for the home or club-room (basket work, carpentering, embroidery etc.); or Be able to hem, darn and patch; or Be able to clean metal and remove stains from dress material; or Splice a rope and make a Turk’s head.

                III Health

                1. Know how to prepare a sick room and make a bed with a patient in it.  2. Know three country dances, or swim 25 yards, or go for, and describe accurately, a five-mile walk.  3. Perform and least three physical exercises and know their value.

                IV Service

                1. Know the proper methods of feeding, bathing and dressing a baby of nine months, and describe a day in the life of a healthy child of three years old.  2. Know the general rules for the treatment of fainting, burns and scalds, and how to stop bleeding.  3. Conduct a team game.


                Cadet Ranger Test

                Know the Guide Second Class Test and be able to train a Tenderfoot in one test out of each group; or Know the Ranger or Sea Ranger Test and be able to train a Tenderfoot in any two of the tests.


                Sea Ranger Test (To become an Able Sea Guide)

                I Intelligence

                1. Signal and read simple message in Morse and Semaphore.  2. Know and be able to describe intelligently: (a) Six cargoes, where they come from and what they are used for; or (b) the rig of six ships or boats; or six types of craft such as fishing boats, trawlers, whalers, lightships, lifeboats, dredgers, salvage-ships etc.  (c) Six fish and their habits; or (d) Six sea birds and their nesting-places; or (e) Six seaweeds and where they grow.

                II Handicraft

                1. Tie seven knots, splice a rope and make a Turk’s head, and one of the following: Make a lanyard, including at least eight fancy knots (including plaits and twists); or Make and sling a hammock; or Embroider or applique her patrol emblem and a Trade badge, or knit a Sea Ranger jersey.

                III Health

                1. Be able to swim 25 yards.  2. Skip 100 times without a break, or Perform three physical exercises with understanding; or Dance a hornpipe.

                IV Service

                1. Conduct a team game.  2. Know how to prepare a sick bay and make a bed with a patient in it, take a temperature and treat for shock, and how to treat for fainting, burns or scalds, how to stop bleeding and to prevent further mischief in case of fracture.  3. Artificial respiration (Schafer’s method).


                Ranger Star

                I Character

                1. Must have been an active member of a Guide or Ranger company for 18 months.  2. must have passed the Ranger Test.  3. Must have shown to the satisfaction of the Court of Honour that she has tried to be a good exponent of the ideals of Guiding in practical daily life and that she has a sense of responsibility for herself and for the safety and well-being of others.  4. Must, unless under very special circumstances, have paid in regularly to some savings bank for six months.  (This to include regular payment to camp fund or similar form of saving.)

                II Intelligence

                1. Bring in a recruit properly trained, or train a Ranger in two of the Ranger tests.  2. Invent a game and teach it to her Patrol, or Get 80 per cent. in an observation game.  3. Speak or write an essay on citizenship, the aims of the Guide movement, any natural history subject; or give an account, gleaned from the newspapers, of a month’s current events; or Tell a Story on a Guide Law for not less than three minutes; or Draw a sketch to illustrate an incident of Guide life.  4. Be able to sing four songs from the following list: or play four country dances on piano or other musical instrument suited to folk dancing, or; Act with her Patrol either an illustration of a Guide Law, or a scene from local history, for not less than fifteen minutes; or Hold Book-lover’s badge; or Recite not less than fifty lines from one of Shakespeare’s plays.  5. Must have spent at least half a day alone or with only one other companion in the country, cooking her own food, and observing the wild birds and animals, plants and flowers, and write a report on what she has observed; or, where this is not possible, Must have tamed a wild animal or bird herself.  (This does not mean keeping it in a cage, but teaching it to come for its food at certain times).

                III Handicraft

                Hold the following (Junior) badges: Child Nurse, Cook and Needlewoman.

                IV Health

                1. Be able to swim 50 yards; or Know ten country dances.  (If a Rangers submits a medical certificate stating that she is unable through physical disability, to take either of the above tests, she may take the Health badge instead.)  2. Show a through knowledge of the six rules of health (fresh air, cleanliness, exercise, food, rest and clothing), and be able to explain them to her Patrol.

                V Service

                1. Hold the Ambulance or Sick Nurse badge.  2. Be responsible for the cleanliness, order and beautifying of the club-room for three months; or Do some definite extra piece of work for others, either indoors or out of doors, regularly for at least three months; or Help at a playground or play-centre at least  once a week for three months.  3. Be able to guide a stranger to the parish church, town hall (or village hall), fire an police stations, nearest P.O., doctor, chemist, garage and principal food and provision merchants.  Describe the architecture and know the history of the parish church and any interesting buildings in the neighbourhood, or Draw at examination a rough sketch which would enable a stranger to find his way from any one given point to another, within a radius of half a mile from the Guides’ headquarters (for country Guides, one mile).


                Cadet Star

                I Character

                Must have been an active member of a Guide or Ranger company for 18 months with experience in leadership, as Patrol Leader or company office holder (e.g., scribe) or acting Lieutenant or Captain, etc.  Must have passed Cadet Ranger test.  Must have shown to the satisfaction of the Court of Honour that she has tried to be a good exponent of the ideals of Guiding in practical daily life, and that she has a sense of responsibility for herself and for the safety and well-being of others.

                Must understand how to open and run a Post Office savings account, the general working of a National Savings Association, the methods and management of a local savings club or any other suitable co-operative institution for thrift, and herself belong to one.

                II Intelligence

                Bring in a Cadet Ranger recruit trained as Tenderfoot.  Invent a game and teach it to her company or patrol – explaining the special value of it for her company programme.  Speak for five minutes on any subject of general interest chosen by herself likely to interest Guides.  Lead a sing song or organise a display.  Hold the Campcraft badge or have spent a week in camp.

                III Handicraft

                Hold five proficiency badges – Guide or Ranger – or one Trade badge and two Proficiency ones.  (Cadets should be encouraged to choose those which qualify for Guide First Class and those which would be most helpful in training and interesting Guides).

                IV Health

                Know health rules and be able to explain and teach by story, rhyme or practical demonstration.  Swimming – be up to the standard of the elementary certificate of the Royal Life Saving Society.  (a) Land drill for rescue and release and Shafer’s method of resuscitation.  (b) In water second and fourth methods of rescue and one of release – subject to be carried ten yards.  (c) Swimming a distance of not less than fifty yards breast stroke and twenty five yards back stroke.

                V Service

                Organisation – Show knowledge of how to: Run a meeting; or Start a company; or Plan and organise a rally.  Recreation – Show knowledge of: Folk dancing; or Music suitable for Guides and Brownies; or Games – indoor and outdoor; or Story telling.  Company Work – Understand the use and value of: Records; Competitions; and Ceremonial.  Write a short essay about 300 words – on one of the following: What do you understand by discipline; or Loyalty; or Leadership; or What do you like best about Guiding?


                Sea Service Star

                I Character

                Must have been an active member of a Guide or Ranger company for 18 months.  Must have passed the Able Sea Guide test.  Must have shown to the satisfaction of the Court of Honour that she has tried to be a good exponent of the ideals of Guiding in practical daily life and that she has a sense of responsibility for herself and for the safety and well-being of others.  Must, unless under very special circumstances, have paid in regularly to some savings bank for six months.  (This to include regular payment to camp fund or similar forms of saving).

                II Intelligence

                Must show a knowledge of the ranks and ratings of the Royal Navy and Mercantile Marines, and of various types of craft.  Know the flags of the new International Code of Signals.  Must be able correctly to follow a one mile to an inch Ordnance map and find her way across country by compass and map for a distance of not less than two miles.  Must have passed the Boatswain’s test and any two of the following: 1st Class Signaller, Rescuer, Senior Cook, First-Aider, Probationer, Astronomer, Sportswoman, Swimming as in Cadet Ranger Star.

                III Handicraft

                Must be able to do simple carpentering, making three articles useful for camp or home.

                IV Health

                Must have passed the swimmer’s test.

                V Service

                Train a recruit.  Be able to guide a stranger to the parish church, town hall (or village hall), fire and police stations, nearest P.O., doctor, chemist, garage and principal food and provision merchants.  Describe the architecture and know the history of the parish church and any interesting buildings in the neighbourhood, or Draw at examination a rough sketch which would enable a stranger to find his way from any one given point to another within a radius of half a mile from the Guides’ Headquarters (For country Guides – one mile.)


                 The Gold Cord Award

                A Ranger or Guide must have had at least two years’ service before being recommended for the Gold Cord.  She must have camped out at least one week under canvas, and have earned the following badges: First Class or Ranger Star, Sick Nurse or Probationer, Handywoman, Swimmer or Signaller or First Class Signaller, Athlete or Gymnast, Naturalist or Nature Lover, Child Nurse or Nurse, Laundress or Finisher, Scribe or Citizen, Domestic Service, Also five others chosen by herself.  She must also have trained a Guide for the 1st Class badge (with the exception of the Ambulance, Child Nurse, Cook, Needle-woman and Swimming tests, which should be taught by qualified people).  A written paper will also be required.  Rangers must hold the Swimmer’s badge if the Ranger Star Test is taken instead of the Guide First Class.  Neither the Green nor the Mauve First Class badges qualify for the Gold Cord Award.


                All-Round Cords

                Can be worn by any Guide having passed her First Class and any other seven tests, in addition to those included in the First Class.  Rangers may wear red and white All-Round Cords, provided they have passed the Ranger Star and any other seven senior badges (these badges may not be the senior grade of badges included in the Ranger Star).  Neither the Green nor the Mauve First Class badges qualify for All-Round Cords.


                Mauve Cord Award

                For physically disabled Guides, whether in Extension Companies or ordinary Companies.

                Qualifications: (a) A Guide must hold the Extension First Class badge, and four Proficiency badges besides those needed for First Class.  (b) Must have rendered some special service to others.  (c) Must have earned 2s. 6d. by her own work.


                Games

                Tops And Tails - Each Ranger is given a two-syllable word, such as Eng-land.  She must take the last syllable and use it to start another word, such ad Land-lord.  The last syllable of this word must form the first of the next, and so on.  Points can be given for the longest accurate chain of words formed in a given time.

                Masks - One Ranger from each Patrol volunteers to stand out and assume a certain expression, such as fear, doubt, surprise, indifference, joy, stupidity, anger, disdain, merriment, etc.  The rest of the Company must write down in one word the name of the emotion which they think is being depicted.  Continue until equal numbers in each Patrol have acted, then count up correct answers.

                Rangers/Cadets in the 1940s


                Rangers

                A recruit may be accepted between the ages of 14 and 20 inclusive, but the training is planned to cover a maximum period of 5 years (A Ranger enrolled at the age of 18 should have three years training instead of five).


                The aim of the Ranger Branch is to give to each individual:

                Character training based on the ideals expressed in the Law and Promise to help her to develop physically, mentally and spiritually.  Training for National Service and Citizenship.  Opportunities for the practice of service.


                Pre-Enrolment Test

                1. Pass the guide Tenderfoot Test (a recruit may then be enrolled as a Guide if she wishes).  2. Study the Law and Promise from a Ranger point of view.  3. Know the Guide World Flag and what it stands for.  4. Attend H.E.S. training regularly for three months.  Additional for Sea Rangers – swim 50 yards.


                Home Emergency Service

                The following basic training is taken in conjunction with the Pre-Enrolment Test, and for Sea Rangers the A.B. Test.

                Discipline

                A high standard is very important.  Quick response to orders and absolute reliability are essential in times of crisis.  Regular drill should be included.  Regular attendance will be expected.  Uniform must be worn correctly and all clothing kept mended and in good order, ready for any emergency. Punctuality and general reliability will be tested over a period of at least six months, and each Ranger must keep a detailed daily record for two weeks or longer, until an unbroken record for a whole week can be produced.

                Fitness

                A Ranger cannot give her best service unless she is fit and well.  To keep herself so is her personal responsibility.  She should: 1. Take at least half-an-hour’s outdoor exercise every day, unless ill.  2. Know the rules of health and undertake to apply them in everyday life, with the definite aim of raising her own standard of fitness.

                Messenger Work

                Communications must always be kept open, and a Ranger should be trained and ready to help in this service.  She should be able to: 1. Memorise a message of twenty words, including names, figures and addresses, and deliver it correctly after covering a mile at Scout’s Pace – even if she has met with frequent interruptions on the way.  2. Give and receive messages accurately over the telephone.  (This may be omitted only if there are no telephones in the neighbourhood.)  3. Write down verbal instructions briefly, clearly and accurately.  4. Show thorough knowledge of the Highway Code.  5. Send and read in Morse or Semaphore at a speed of fifteen letters a minute.  6. Find her way about by day or night, showing intimate knowledge of the neighbourhood, and understand practical use of map and compass (Thirty-two points of compass to be learnt.)

                Emergency Training

                When an accident happens it is important that a Ranger should keep her head, but it is equally important that she should know the right thing to do.  She should know the right way of dealing with the following: 1. Outbreak of fire, including use of stirrup pump.  2. Severe bleeding.  3. Gas attack, including use and care of respirators.  4. Suffocation.  5. Shock, including ability to light a fire out-of-doors and produce a hot stimulant in not more than twenty minutes.  6. Electrical breakdown, requiring repair of fuse were; and the assembling of an electrical buzzer so that it can be used.


                A.B. Test – Sea Rangers

                Intelligence

                1. Signal and read simple messages in Semaphore.  2. Read a nautical book and the Sea Ranger Handbook “Sea Sense”.  3. Be familiar with the history of shipping from the earliest times to the present day.  4. Know the flags of the Merchant Service and of other nations.  5. Know and describe intelligently: (a) The rig of six ships or boats, (b) Six types of craft, (c) Six cargoes, and how they are stowed; where they come from and for what they are used.  6. Have a knowledge of: (a) Six fish and their habits, and how they are caught; or (b) Six water birds and their nesting places; or (c) Six seaweeds and where they grow; or (d) Six constellations and how to find her direction by three of them.

                Handicraft

                Use seven knots useful for boatwork, splice a rope and make a lanyard, using at least eight fancy knows (to include plaits and twists and a Turk’s head).

                Health

                Row a boat with others and make a boat fast; know the common nautical terms used in connection with boats.


                Ranger Certificates

                When a Ranger has gained the H.E.S. Armlet, or has worked at the basic training for at least a year, she may specialise and work for a Ranger Certificate.  This specialised training is divided under the following group headings, each of which includes several subjects.

                1. Home Service: Cook and Caterer, Dressmaker, Electrician, Finisher, Handywoman, Housecraft.  2. Nursing Service: First Aid, Home Nursing, Hygiene, Samaritan.  3. Child Welfare: Child Study, Infant and Child Welfare, Play Leadership.  4. Cultural: Art, Drama, Folk Dancer, Handwork, Literature, Music.  5. Coast and River Service: Coast and River Service, Life-Saver, Mariner, Sea Lore, Seamanship.  6. Outdoor: Astronomer, Campcraft, Explorer, Forestry, Landgirl, Local Knowledge, Naturalist, Rifle Shot, Water Naturalist.  7. Community Service: Airwoman, Citizen, Civil Defence, Emergency Cook, Mechanic, Public Health, Signalling Transmitter.  8. World Citizenship: Empire Knowledge, International Knowledge, Linguist.

                Physical training should run concurrently with these courses.  A certificate is given for each section  when a test in any one subject has been passed.  Further subjects in the section are printed on the same certificate with spaces to be signed by testers.  The H.E.S. Armlet is worn on the right arm.  For the following subjects badges will be given as well as certificates. A.B., Life-Saver, Samaritan, First Aid, and Signalling Transmitter, these are worn on a plain armlet on the left arm, also the badge of the R.L.S.S.


                Cadets

                Cadet companies may be formed in a division, district, college or school where there a number of girls of 15 and over who wish to train for service in the Guide Movement. 

                Scheme of Training

                To study the aims of the Guide Movement: 1. To help girls to become useful citizens, and to realise their responsibilities as members of a community.  2. To strengthen the bond of the British Commonwealth and to promote international goodwill.

                To practice the methods by which these aims are achieved: 1. The teaching of the fundamental importance of the Promise and Law.  2. The Patrol System.  3. Woodcraft, especially camping, and the playing of Scouting games following the methods in Scouting for Boys.  4. The practical application of test work.

                To acquire the knowledge necessary to help with the training of Guides or Brownies in:  1. Test work (Tenderfoot, 2nd and 1st Class).  2. Drill and Ceremonial.  3. A subject of special interest to the Cadet herself.

                To gain first-hand experience of methods of handling children by working in a Guide company or Brownie pack.

                On leaving the company a Cadet receives a certificate which is a record of the work she has done.  The certificate is in duplicate, and one copy is sent to the District Commission to whose District the Cadet is transferred.


                Extension Rangers

                Pre-Enrollment Test

                (1) Have passed the Guide Tenderfoot Test and have studied the Law and Promise from a Ranger point of view.  (2) Know the World Guide Flag and what it stands for.  (3) Attend H.E.S. or Ranger training regularly for three months.


                Extension Ranger Service Tests

                Extension Rangers cannot qualify for the H.E.S. Armlet, and should take the Extension Ranger Service Tests, which are parallel to the Home Emergency Service basic training.  These Tests are grouped under the following headings: Intelligence, Service, Health, Crafts.

                1. Preliminary Test.  Pass four clauses, one from each group in the Extension Ranger Service Tests.

                2. Intermediate Test.  Pass eight more clauses, two from each group of these tests.

                3. Advanced Test.  Pass twelve more clauses, from any of the groups of these tests. 

                The ordinary Ranger Certificates may be taken after passing the Preliminary Test, provided they can afterwards be put to a practical use.


                Rangers/Cadets in the 1950s


                Rangers

                The Ranger age is from 15 to 21 years inclusive.  Under special circumstances a girl of 14 may be admitted to the company but not enrolled.  There are three sections within the Ranger Branch – Land, Sea and Air – each with it’s own section training.


                Pre-Enrolment Test

                1. Study the Promise and Law from a Ranger point of view.  Know the origin and development of the Movement.  2. Know the symbolism and significance of the Union Jack, the flag of her own country, and the Guide World Flag, and be able to hoist them.  3. Treat for shock, and show simple methods of stopping bleeding.  4. Wear her uniform correctly and smartly.  Take her place in squad drill.  5. Plan and carry out a day’s expedition with a definite objective, taking a friend with her, and keeping a brief log.  Additional for Sea Rangers: Swim 50 yards.

                Before being enrolled as a Ranger a recruit must attend meetings regularly and punctually for three months.  A recruit may wear uniform with the exception of the Ranger enrolment badge, beret badge, or cap ribbon.  If she has previously been enrolled as a Guide she may wear her Tenderfoot badge in Ranger uniform.


                Ranger Service Star

                During her Ranger Service Star training a Ranger will be expected to undertake some form of study to deepen her religious faith and her understanding of the Promise and Law.

                Part 1

                1. Collect and keep in readiness a complete set of personal equipment which she can pack, with 24 hours’ notice, in a neat and practical way, serviceable for expeditions in any weather.  2. (a) in parties of two or more, using this equipment, go for a week-end camp or over-night hike.  Be able to use a map in planning such expeditions.  Or (b) Using this equipment, carry out an exploration lasting at least 24 hours; the sleeping accommodation may be in a Youth Hostel, cyclist’s rest, or barn, etc.  The exploration planned largely by the Ranger should show enterprise and a sense of adventure.  The plans should be submitted to the examiner beforehand; she may incorporate an additional challenge, possibly in the form of sealed orders.  Note: If more than one Ranger is being tested each should take the lead during the day, the party splitting up if necessary; the candidate should, if possible, secure the site or sleeping accommodation.

                Part II

                1. Visit a house or flat and bring back a sufficiently clear description of it so that the intending occupier would be able to know if it were likely to be suitable.  Note general layout, size of rooms, their aspect; heating lighting and cooking facilities water system etc.; also garden or yard.  2. Find out in her own area: Where children can be treated for minor ailments.  Where mothers can be advised in Infant Welfare.  Who is responsible for providing a pure milk supply, sanitation, water, gas and electricity supplies.  Who pays for these services, and from what source the money comes.  Read the Ranger health book How to be Healthy – and Wise, and show that she has made an effort to improve her health and appearance.  Choose a country overseas and be able to interest other people in what she has found out about it.

                Part III

                1. Cook, serve and clear away a well-balanced two-course meal.  2. Bring a statement, signed by a competent person, saying that she has bathed, changed and dressed a child under three years old, and has seen a demonstration bathing of a baby of under six months (or a doll) given by a trained person.  Must show that she realises the necessity for discipline, routine, cleanliness and understanding when dealing with young children.  3. Study design and colour in relation to dress and interior decoration.  Make either a personal garment or an article of household furnishing, or decorate a room.  4. Do one of the following: (a) Keep a list of what she has read over a period of six months.  This should include three first-class books, modern or classical, poetry or prose.  (b) Compare the merits of three full-length plays, films or ballets, seen during the period of preparation for the test, the choice to be as varied as possible.  (c) Visit an art gallery and discuss three selected pictures.  (d) Know the fundamentals of three different types of architecture and be able to compare them.  (e) Become familiar with three musical masterpieces (by concerts, gramophone or broadcasting) and be able to give reasons for her choice.  (f) Introduce three folk tunes (songs or dances) new to the company, and be able to teach them.

                Part IV

                1. Be able to deal with outbreak of fire (including forest or moorland fires) and know how to use at least one type of fire extinguisher.  2. Be able to deal with the following: Severe bleeding, asphyxiation (including electrical shock), fractures (for prevention of further injury), wounds and burns.  3. Receive and pass on clear messages and give precise directions to strangers in her own neighbourhood.

                The Star Test can be taken in stages and in any order.  A Service Start with the figure I in the centre is awarded when any one part or any three separate clauses have been passed, and so on until the full star, with the central Ranger trefoil, is gained.


                Section Training

                For Sea Rangers: the A.B. Test

                For Air Rangers: The Leading Air Ranger Test

                For Land Rangers: the Land Ranger Adventurer Test (optional and experimental).


                A.B. Test – Sea Rangers

                1. Signal and read messages in semaphore at a speed of 15 letters a minute, and know the following procedure signals: calling up, wait, general answer, numeral sign, numerals, erase, end of message.  2. Read a nautical book, illustrating the customs and traditions of the sea.  3. Be able to recognise from models or pictures, ships of the following periods: Egyptian, Greek, Roman, Viking, Norman Conquest, 13th-14th century, Tudor, Elizabethan, 17th, 18th, 19th centuries.  4. Know the White, Blue and Red Ensigns, and who are entitled to fly them.  Recognise the Merchant Navy flags of 20 maritime nations.  5. know and describe any two of the following: (a) the rig of three square-rigged and three fore-and-aft-rigged sailing vessels.  (b) Six types of Naval or Merchant Navy craft.  (c) Six types of cargo, stating how packed, stowed, loaded and discharged, country of origin, destination and use.  6. Show an understanding of simple weather signs.  Show ability to make reasonably accurate weather forecasts, keeping a weather chart for at least a week.  7. Recognise six constellations, and be able to find the compass points from three of them.  8. (a) be able to use seven of the following bends and hitches, choosing first those not already known: reef, clove hitch, round turn and two half hitches, bowline, sheetbend, fisherman’s, figure of eight, rolling hitch, double sheetbend, bowline on a bight, anchor bend, running bowline, carrick bend.  (b) Make a short, back, and eye splice.  (c) Make a lanyard, showing at least eight fancy knots and sennets, including a Turk’s head.  9(a) Row a boat, with others, and make a boat fast.  (b) Name the parts of a rowing boat.  (c) Know the common terms used in connection with rowing boats.


                Leading Air Ranger Test.

                1. Read a book on the history of aviation and show that she has some knowledge of the subject.  2. Know the different controls of an aircraft or glider; be able to explain how an aircraft or glider takes to the air; what sustains it in flights and the principal forces which affect it in flight.  3. Know: (a) The distinguishing rank badges and titles of the R.A.F and W.R.A.F.  (b) At least ten International markings and identification letters on civil aircraft.  4. Know how to render assistance to the occupants of a crashed aircraft as follows: (a) Be able to recognise emergency exist and break in panels.  (b) Be able to recognise the location of crash axes and fire-extinguishers, and demonstrate their uses.  (c) Be able to disengage the safety harness and parachute harness of passengers and air crew.  (d) By giving first aid (as set out under Part IV of the Ranger Service Star) and emergency call to ambulance and fire brigade.  5. Know the difference between and be able to recognise the following: High-wing monoplane, low-wing monoplane, single-engined and multi-engined aircraft, biplane, seaplane, flying boat, glider.  6. Keep a weather log for two consecutive weeks, making at least two entries a day.  The log should include estimation of wind strength and direction, amount and estimated height of cloud, visibility, and (if possible) air temperature and pressure.  7. Understand the purpose of a signals area at an airfield, and know at least six different signals which might be displayed.  Know the standard ground-to-air signals by Aldis lamp and Very lights in use on Service and civil airfields.  8. Know the signals and orders used by pilots and ground crews when: (a) starting and stopping engines;  (b) taxi-ing; And be able to give assistance to a pilot taxi-ing an aircraft.  Or: Be proficient in the orders and signals used in handling gliders and sail planes.  9. Know the difference between air speed and ground speed, and be able to describe the principle and purpose of the air-speed indicator and altimeter.  10. Have been for a short flight as pilot or passenger in an aircraft or glider;  Or Have spent half an hour at the controls of a Link Trainer; Or Have spent an hour receiving instruction and watching duties being performed in a control tower on a Service or large civil aerodrome.


                Air Ranger Wings

                To qualify to wear Air Ranger wings a Guider or Ranger must have passed the Leading Air Ranger Test and have completed three hours solo flying in a powered aircraft or hold the “B” Gliding Certificate.


                Ranger Certificates

                A certificate will be awarded to a Ranger passing any one of the following tests.  This will entitle her to wear the appropriate special service bar.  I Home Service – Cook, Dressmaker, Electrician, Finisher, Handywoman, Housecraft.  II Nursing Service – First Aid, Home Nursing, Hygiene, Samaritan.  III Child Service – Child Study, Infant and Child Welfare, Play Leadership.  IV Community Service – (a) cultural: Art, Drama, Folk Dancer, Handwork, Literature, Music; (b) general: Citizen, Fire-Fighting, Motor Mechanic, Public Health, Signalling Transmitter.  V Coast and River Service – Seamanship, Life-Saver, Mariner, Oarsman, Sea Lore, Shipwright.  VI Air Service – Aeromodeller, Aircraft Recognition, Air Crew, Air Mechanic, Glider Crew, Meteorology, Navigation, Theory of Flight.  VII Outdoor Service – Astronomer, Campcraft, Explorer, Forester, Land-Girl, Local Knowledge, Water Naturalist Woodcraft.  VIII World Service – British Commonwealth and Empire Knowledge, International Knowledge, Linguist.


                Cadets

                This section of the Training Department exists to give girls between 16 and 21 opportunities for training for service in the Guide Movement.

                Before investiture a recruit must work for three months in the company and pas a test drawn up by the Court of Honour, and including:

                (a) a special challenge to each particular girl according to her needs, this to be decided by the candidate in consultation with the Court of Honour.  This challenge should aim at developing initiative, self-reliance, endurance and a sense of responsibility, and should include equal opportunities for adventure and enjoyment such as an overnight hike in tent or barn, or some form of adventurous expedition by day.  (b) A high personal standard of appearance, manners and reliability.  This test should be taken within a year of entry into the company.

                No proficiency badges are worn by Cadets except the metal First Class Badge or Queen’s Guide Award, the Ranger Service Star; the Cadet and Ranger Camp Permit Bar.


                Scheme of Training

                (a) To study the aims of the Guide Movement: 1. To help girls to become useful citizens, and to realise their responsibilities as members of a community.  2. To strengthen the bond of the British Commonwealth.  3. To promote international good will.  (Companies should be encouraged to visit other countries and to entertain visitors from other countries.)  (b) To practice the methods by which these aims are achieved: 1. The teaching of the fundamental importance of the Promise and Law.  2. The Patrol System.  3. Woodcraft, especially camping, and the playing of Scouting games, following the methods in Scouting for Boys.  4. The practical application of test work.  (c) To acquire the knowledge necessary to help with the training of Guides or Brownies in: 1. Test work (Tenderfoot, Second and First Class).  2. Drill and Ceremonial.  3. A subject of special interest to the Cadet herself.  (d) To gain experience in camping and hold some camping qualifications before completing her training e.g. Campcraft, Quartermaster, Junior Quartermaster Certificate, etc. (e) To gain first-hand experience of methods of handling children by working in a Guide company or Brownie pack.


                Extension Rangers

                Extension Rangers may take the Ranger Service Star, with alternative tests if necessary, given in The Extension Book (badge: Ranger Service Star); or they may take the Extension Ranger Service Tests (badge: blue stripes).


                Extension Ranger Service Tests

                These tests are grouped under the following headings: Intelligence, Service, Health, Crafts.  

                1. Preliminary Test.  Pass four clauses, one from each group in the Extension Ranger Service Tests.

                2. Intermediate Test.  Pass eight more clauses, two from each group of these tests.

                3. Advanced Test.  Pass twelve more clauses, from any of the groups of these tests.


                Rangers/Cadets in the 1960s


                Rangers and Cadets form The Senior Branch.  There are 4 sections within the Senior Branch - Land Rangers, Sea Rangers, Air Rangers and Cadets.


                The Ranger age is from 15 to 21 years inclusive, but where circumstances make it desirable girls of 14 may be admitted.  On reaching the 21 age-limit a Ranger should be encouraged to transfer to the Trefoil Guild if she cannot accept an active appointment.  A Trefoil Guild may be attached to a Ranger unit.  Units are termed Land Ranger Company, Sea Ranger Crew, Air Ranger Flight, Cadet Company.


                Investiture Test

                Attend meetings regularly and punctually for three months and maintain a high standard of personal appearance.  Satisfy the Ranger Guider that she: Has an understanding of the Promise and Law from a Ranger's point of view and accepts the guidance that they give.  Is able to take a full part in unit ceremonial.  Understands the symbolism of the following flags: the nion Jack, the flag of her own country, the Guide World Flag, and the flag of the United Nations.

                During this period the recruit should: 1. Prove herself dependable by carrying out some definite undertaking for others.  2. Plan and carry out an expedition covering a minimum of six hours, taking one or two friends and keeping a brief record.  The expedition should have a definite object.  Places of interest to be visited may be in cities, towns, or the country, and any form of transport may be used.  3. Interest a group of people in her own hobby or pursuit or pass one clause of the Ranger Service Star or section specialist test.


                Ranger Service Star

                A badge showing the Roman numeral I is awarded when any three clauses have been passed.  It is changed for badge II for six clauses passed and III for nine clauses passed.  A badge with a red trefoil in the centre is awarded when the whole test is completed.

                1. Collect and keep in readiness a complete set of personal equipment.  With twenty-four hours' notice, pack it in a neat and practical way to be serviceable for an expedition in any weather.  2. With one or two companions and using this equipment, carry out an exploratory exhibition, e.g. overnight hike, lightweight camp, etc.  Youth hostels, cyclists' rests, barns, or tents may be used.  The expedition is to be planned by the Ranger and approved by the tester who is to meet the party during some part of the expedition.  (Alternative to clauses 1 & 2: Explorer Certificate).  3. Visit a house or flat and bring back a sufficiently clearly drawn plan and description of it for an intending occupier to judge whether it is likely to be suitable.  Note general layout; size of rooms; aspect; heating, cooking and lighting facilities; water system, etc; garden or yard.  (Alternative to clause 3: Home Planning Certificate.)  4. Find out in her own area: Where children can be treated for minor ailments.  Where mothers can be advised on Infant Welfare.  Where and how provision is made for the aged and infirm.  Who is responsible for providing a pure milk supply; sanitation; water, gas and electricity supplies.  Who pays for these services, and from what source the money comes.  Draw up a list of these services, to include directions for finding the establishments and, where appropriate, information about the times of attendance.  Pay at least one visit to an establishment connected with one of the above services.  Read the Ranger health book "How to be healthy-and wise", and show that she has made an effort to improve her health and appearance.  (Alternative to clause 4: Citizen Certificate).  5. Choose a country other than her own, and be able to interest other people in what she has found out about it; know whether it is a member of the United Nations Organisation or United Nations: Identify the following initials: UNO, UNA, UNESCO, UNICEF, ILO, FAO, WHO.  Know something about the work of one of these bodies.  Alternative - Commonwealth Knowledge Certificate or International Knowledge certificate.  6. Cook a well-balanced two-course meal, serve it, and clear away.  Alternative - Cook Certificate.  7. Bring a statement, signed by a competent person, showing that she has bathed, changed, and dressed a child under 3 years old, and has seen a trained person demonstrate the bathing of a baby of under 6 months (or a doll).  Show that she realizes the necessity for discipline, routine, cleanliness, and understanding when dealing with young children.

                Alternative - Child Care Certificate or Infant Welfare Certificate.  8. Study design and colour in relation to dress and interior decoration.  Make a personal garment or an article of household furnishing, or decorate a room.  Alternative - Dressmaker Certificate.  9. Pass one of the following clauses:  a) Keep a record of her reading over a period of six months.  Note: This should include three first-class book, modern or classical, poetry or prose.  b) Compare the merits of three full-length plays, films or ballets seen during the period of preparation for the test, the choice to be as varied as possible.  c) Visit an art gallery and discuss three pictures of her choice.  d) Know the fundamentals of three different types of architecture and be able to compare them.

                e) Familiarise herself with three musical masterpieces through concerts, gramophone records and/or broadcasting; and give reasons for her choice.  f) Introduce three folk-tunes (songs or dances) new to the company, and be able to teach them.  Alternative - one of the Certificates in the Cultural Section, community Service.  10. Know how to deal with an outbreak of fire (including forest or moorland fires) and how to sue at least one type of fire extinguisher; one part of the clause to be demonstrated practically.  Alternative - Fire-Fighting Certificate.  11. Know how to deal with the following: shock, simple and severe bleeding, asphyxiation (including electrical shock), fractures (for the prevention of further injury), wounds, and burns.  Alternative - First Aid Certificate or Samaritan Certificate.  12. Receive and pass on clear messages; give precise directions to strangers in her own neighbourhood.


                The Land Ranger Test

                1. Use an Ordnance Survey map including grid references.  2. Obtain compass directions from the sun, moon and stars, and explain how this is done.  3. Have received recent instruction in what to do when a road accident occurs.  4. Cook a meal, consisting of two hot dishes, out of doors on a wood fire or pressure stove.  5. Choose two places of particular interest to herself.  Conduct a vistor round them showing what she has discovered about each.  6. Using time-tables, plan a route by rail, road, air or sea from her home to a given destination.  7. Carry out systematically for four weeks an activity which she has set herself as a course of training to improve her physical fitness.  This can be walking, running, skipping, cycling, etc.  8. Have received instruction on suitable clothing, foot-wear and the care of the feet for expeditions.  9. Know the Country Code.

                Having gained this badge a Ranger may take the tests for the Land Ranger Maintenance and/or the Land Ranger Adventure.


                The Land Ranger Maintenance Test

                The candidate mast have passed the Land Ranger Test and must take one of the following three sections A, B or C to qualify.

                A

                1. Study 'Are you good at cycling?' and have passed the National Cycling Proficiency Test within the previous 12 months.  2. Clean and oil a bicycle and know how to keep it in a roadworthy condition.  3. Mend a puncture and know how to adjust brakes.  4. Understand the efficient packing and safe distribution of equipment for a cycling expedition.  5. Make an article of equipment suitable for a cycling expedition, e.g. pannier fora bicycle, cycle cape, tent or equivalent.  6. With the aid of maps and guide books, plan a day's cycling expedition using secondary roads and byways where practicable.

                B

                1. Wash and polish a car, motor cycle or scooter.  2. Understand the working of a four-stroke or two-stroke engine.  3. Know the functions of carburettor, clutch, gear-box, electrical system.  4. Change a wheel and know how to unscrew a tight nut; check oil, petrol, water, brake fluid and batteries.  5. Test, clean, and change a sparking plug.  6. Have used the tools necessary in simple car maintenance and know their names.  7. As a passenger travelling on unfamiliar roads, and using a map, direct a driver of a car or cycle for at least 20 miles.  Alternative to clauses 1-6 - Motor Mechanic Certificate

                C

                1. Groom a horse or pony and clean out a stall or box.  Know the essential grooming kit and it's uses.  2. Demonstrate saddling, bridling and rugging-up.  3. Have an elementary understanding of the care and cleaning of saddlery.  4. Have an elementary understanding of feeding and watering a horse.  5. Have a knowledge of the care and working of a horse off grass.  6. Recognize a loose or worn shoe, and excessively long foot; know what action to take in each case.  7. Know the points of a horse.  Alternative: Land Girl Certificate, Section VII Horsewoman.


                The Land Ranger Adventure Test

                The candidate must have passed the Land Ranger Test.  1. With one or two friends carry out an expedition in unknown territory.  The expedition, which by the inclusion of various 'incidents' will test the candidate's initiative and common-sense, and her ability to use the skills she has learned, may be undertaken on foot, or riding or driving a horse or pony, or riding a bicycle, scooter or moped, or driving a car.  the expedition is to last for twenty-four hours and the overnight accommodation must be in a YHA hostel , or climbing or club hut or tents or barn.  She is to be given her first direction , and on reaching a given point is to open sealed orders.  If the candidate is travelling on foot she may use public transport to get to a suitable starting point.  All equipment for the expedition must be well prepared and packed in a way suitable for the method of travel.  2. Know the local weather signs and the safety precautions to be taken in fog, cloud, mountain mist, blizzard, etc.


                Ordinary Sea Ranger Test

                1. Know the history of the ship after which the crew is named.  2. Semaphore: signal and read letters and words.  3. a) Know sixteen points of the compass.  b) Take a simple bearing.  4. Pipe the Still, Carry on, Pipe the side.  5. a) Know the times of the different watches.  b) Strike ship's time on the bell.  6. Identify the white, Blue and Red ensigns, and know who are entitled to fly them.  7. Read a nautical book illustrating customs and traditions of the sea.  8. a) Identify four types of pulling boat.  b) Identify in practice the various parts of a boat and of an oar.  9. a) Use six of the following bends and hitches: Round turn and two half-hitches, bowline, rolling-hitch, double sheetbend, bowline on a bight, fisherman's (or anchor) bend, running bowline, packer's knot, timber-hitch, highwayman's hitch,

                b) make a short, back, and eye splice.  c) Know eight fancy knots and sennits, including a Turk's head, make a lanyard showing not less than four of these knots.


                Able Sea Ranger Test

                1. Hold the O.S.R. badge.  2. Swim 50 yds.  3. Semaphore: signal and read messages at a speed of twenty-five letters a minute, and know the following procedure signals: calling up, wait, general answer, erase, end of message.  4. Identify six constellations; find the compass points from three of them.  5. Show an understanding of simple weather signs.  Keep a weather chart for a week, showing reasonably accurate forecasts.  6. Recognise the Merchant Navy flags of twenty nations, including those of the independent countries of the Commonwealth.  7. a) Understand the general principles of cargo-carrying in the Merchant Navy.  b) Describe four types of cargo; state how they are packed, loaded and stowed; give their country of origin and destination.  8. Identify and describe six types of Navy or Merchant Navy craft.  9. Identify four types of sailing boat in general use.  10. a) Read a book on the development of shipping.  b) Recognise and describe four types of square-rigged vessel.  11. a) Use all the bends and hitches named in the O.S.R. test.  b) Demonstrate two types of whipping.  12. a) Row a boat with others.  b) Know the common terms in connection with rowing boats.  c) Make fast a oat to a ring-bolt, cleat, and bollard.


                Leading Sea Ranger Test

                1. Hold the A.B. badge.  2. Transmit and receive signals, using one of the following methods: a) semaphore: seven words per minute.  b) Flashing: three words per minute.  c) Buzzer: eight words per minute.  3. Identify the flags and pennants of the International Code of Signals and know their single letter meaning.  4. Identify buoys in use under the Uniform System of Buoyage.  5. Read a chart and fix a position by means of cross bearings.  6. Know the distinguishing marks and titles of officers of the Royal Navy and Women's Royal Naval Service.  7. Recognize, from models or pictures, ships of the following periods: Egyptian, Greek, Roman, Viking, Norman Conquest, 13th Century, 14th Century, Tudor, Elizabethan, 17th Century, 18th Century, 19th Century.  8. a) Instruct a recruit in knotting for the O.S.R. test.  b) Make a long splice.  c) Learn two new fancy knots.  9. a) Make one of the following: canvas bag, canvas bucket, rope or canvas fender, rope mat, netted article, ship in a bottle, four instructional models; or b) strop a block.  10. a) Manage a dinghy or similar craft, singlehanded; or b) Cox a boat under oars.

                Alternative to clause 10: the Oarsman Certificate or the Boating Permit.  11. a) Demonstrate in the water one method of release and rescue (combined) as approved by the R.L.S.S. and tow the subject 20yds; or b) Throw a life-line to reach a person 15yds away; demonstrate the Holger Nielsen method of artificial respiration and the treatment of the apparently drowned.


                Leading Air Ranger Test

                1. Read a book on the history of aviation and pass one of the following clauses: a) compile a scrapbook on a particular feature in the history of aviation.  b) Construct a model of historical interest.  c) Make a chart showing the progress of aviation.  2. a) Know the common terms used to describe parts of an aircraft.  b) Know the different controls of an aircraft or glider.  c) make a chart showing the progress of aviation.  3. a) Know the distinguishing marks and titles of the Royal Air Force and Women''s Royal Air Force personnel.  b) Recognise the national markings and identification letters on civil aircraft of ten countries.  c) Know the air routes operating from five countries to the home country.  4. Know how to render assistance to the occupants of a crashed aircraft by being able to: a) Recognise and operate emergency exits and break-in panels.  b) Locate and use crash axes and fire extinguishers.  c) Disengage the safety harness and parachute harness of passengers and air crew.  d) Render first aid.  e) Give emergency calls for ambulance and fire brigade.  5. Identify the following: High-wing monoplane, low-wing monoplane, single-engined and multi-engined aircraft, biplane, seaplane, flying boat, glider, helicopter.  6. Keep a weather log for two consecutive weeks, making two or more entries a day showing: :a) amount and type of cloud, b) force and direction of wind, c) estimated visibility, d) temperature and pressure (where possible).  7. a) Understand the purpose of a signals area at an airfield and now at least six different signals which might be displayed.  b) know the standard ground-to-air signals used by Aldis lamps and Very lights used on Service and civil airfields.  8. Know the signals and orders used by pilots and ground crews when: a) Handling gliders and sail planes; or b) Starting engines, taxi-ing, and stopping engines.  Be able to assist a pilot taxi-ing an aircraft.  9. a) Understand the difference between air speed and ground speed.  b) Know the use of altimeter and air-speed indicator and be able to make correct readings.  c) Know the points of the compass and their relative degrees.  d) Set an aeronautical compass for a given track.  10. Go for a short flight as pilot or passenger in an aircraft or glider; or pass one of the following clauses: a) spend half an hour at the controls of a Link Trainer.  b) Spend an hour receiving instruction and watching duties being performed at a control tower on a service or large civil aerodrome.


                Rangers/Young Leaders from 1968 and in the 1970s

                Pre-Investiture Challenge - do one thing from each of the eight sections.  In each case one of the suggestions or an agreed activity of your choice.

                Learn To Be Fit - Have you Ever?
                Learn to ice skate or ski.  Have a Turkish bath or sauna bath.  Try rowing, sailing, climbing, gymnastics, archery.  Try a sport not taught at school, eg squash, badminton, golf.  Go regularly to keep fit classes, or folk dancing, or something else that exercises the whole body.  Take care of your teeth and figure by going without sweets for a time, eg a month.  Walk every day or rise early every day to take exercise.  Learn about poise, make up, hygiene and good grooming.  Go to bed early enough to get nine hours sleep each night for a fortnight.  Learn to swim well, or dive.  Train yourself in cross-country running, hill walking, mountaineering or cycling.  Train yourself to be capable of sustained physical effort by skipping regularly, running upstairs instead of taking the lift, walking instead of taking the bus.  Learn to dance well and confidently.  Learn about food values and the importance of a balanced diet, and attempt to follow one.  Ride a horse regularly or go pony-trekking.

                Creative Ability - choose two challenges from the three sections Go Places, Know What You Like And Why You Like It, Create Something Yourself
                Go Places - Have you Ever?
                Visited any interesting exhibition?  A model flat or house put on show by a local builder?  Work done by the blind?  A trades' fair?  A display of local arts and crafts?  A scientific exhibition?  The Commonwealth Institute in Kensington or in Edinburgh?  An agricultural show?  An air display?  A fashion show?  A display of international food and drink?  A hairdressing display?  A book display?  A display of old musical instruments?  of boat building?  of watch and clock-making?  A cookery demonstration?  etc.  Visited your local museum or a museum new to you, to study one particular thing?  e.g. How bees make honey?  Furniture of two hundred years ago?  A collection of pictures by a local artist?  The changing shape of crockery over the years?  Birds' eggs?  Silver coins?  An exhibit that it would be worth bringing the local Guides and Brownies to see?  (Possibilities are endless, but aching 'museum feet' and whirling 'museum brain' always follow from a listless wander-round - so have a definite objective.).  Been to an art gallery?  In your home town, in your capital city, abroad, somewhere on holiday?  Visited any interesting places of general interest?  Your nearest airport, docks, TV or radio station, International club, City hall, Cathedral and churches, Factories (by arrangement), Fire station, modern housing estate - or any other you can think of.  Been to any concerts?  lunch hour concerts, folk music, jazz, pop, classical, choral, or religious?  Have you listened in at the local music festival, or at concerts given by the youth orchestra, or been to a prom.  Seen any good plays, films, operas, ballets?  (Seats can be expensive, but are worth saving up for.  Many of today's most knowledgeable theatre and ballet lovers spent many exciting hours in their youth 'in the gods' (that is the gallery) enjoying great plays and music at relatively little cost.  Listened to any talks by distinguished or interesting speakers (local papers and libraries advertise a host of popular lectures which are well worth going to) or invited an expert to speak to your Unit?  A social worker, the Youth Employment Officer, a member of the Police Force, a naturalist, a Justice of the Peace, someone who has traveled abroad recently, an historian, a writer, a fashion editor, a councilor, a circus clown?  Visited the Ulster Folk Museum at Cultra Manor, near Holywood, Co Down, or the Welsh Folk Museum at St Fagan's?  They illustrate the way of life, past and present, and the traditions of the people.  In this age of machine-made goods and mass production, have you thought of discovering all you can about the work of skilled craftsmen in local industries?  If you are on holiday in Wales why not find out about the Welsh double-weave 'tapestry' designs and how the wool for tapestry is dyed?  If sailing on the Norfolk Broads why not try to discover something of the art of the reed-thatcher?


                Know What You Like And Why You Like It - Have you Ever . . .

                 listened to records - jazz, folk, pop, or classical (or a mixture of them all) and choose a selection to play for an old people's party, a twenty-first birthday party, a boy in hospital, for yourself.  What made you choose these particular records?   listened to records and chosen one as theme music for an investiture, or as a 'lead-in' or theme for a Guides' Own Service, for background music for a play, for dance/drama, or mime?  Why choose this one specially?   visited an art gallery, made a choice of the pictures you like, and discovered why you like them?  (Try explaining to a group of friends why certain pictures appeal to you in passing - but why you would buy others to live with.)   been to a modern ballet or film or play - and found out what it was all about?  Did it mean anything to you?  Would you recommend your parents to go to see it - or your own contemporaries?  If not - why not?   looked critically at the advertisements you see over a month or so - on TV, in the glossies and Sunday papers and on hoardings?  Do they influence you in what you buy?  What brand of chocolate, bra, toothpaste?  Is there really a sweet that you can  eat between meals 'without ruining your appetite'?  Are advertisements honest - or doesn't it matter?  Sex-appeal sells goods.  Is this debasing moral standards?  What about free gifts, trading stamps, and other incentives to purchase?   read books of your own choosing and been able to give reasons for liking or disliking them?   studied the architecture around you?  Churches, private houses, public buildings - old and new.  (What will the buildings of the future be like?  Le Corbusier once said 'A house is a machine for living in.'  Do you agree?)  watched a TV programme - or listened to one on the radio - on a cultural, scientific, or international subject, and discussed it afterwards in a small group?   window-shopped for costume jewellery - or modern furniture - or kitchen equipment - or wallpapers - or fabrics - or somesuch, and really studied colour and design in relation to costs?  What is value for money?  (A visit to the Design Centre in London or the Scottish Design Centre in Glasgow would be most interesting here.)   have you ever read poetry of your own choosing for your own enjoyment?  (This is a very different matter from doing it at school!  Some record companies produce very striking discs of poetry readings.)  How about starting with Edward Lear's Nonsense Omnibus, and going on to the war poems of Wilfred Owen, or the exciting word paintings of Dylan Thomas in Under Milk Wood?  Can poetry evoke an emotion that prose cannot?


                Create Something Yourself - Have you Ever?

                 made your own clothes - or cushion covers and curtains - or a rug?  tried to draw or paint - or do wood-carving or whittling - or clay-modelling - or sculpture?  made a piece of simple furniture - or 'done-up' old furniture imaginatively - or chosen a colour scheme for a room?  made a musical instrument and used it to accompany a suitable campfire song?  acted in a play - dressed or produced one?  demonstrated make-up for a play - or for normal everyday wear?  written a poem - or a song - or a story - or a short play - or an account of something to be published in a Guide periodical or school magazine?  made your own patterns for embroidery or knitting - or designed and made your own gift boxes for presents - or made original Christmas and Easter decorations?  created a new hairstyle - dance - piece of music - or song?  made jam - or wine - or decorated a cake - or made potato bread on a camp fire?  studied the art of letter-writing - formal and informal invitations and replies - business letters - correct and incorrect ways of addressing people and of ending letters?  made toys - from felt, cloth, wool or wood - or made puppets and put on a puppet play?  done quilting - lampshade-making - glove-making - embroidery - knitting - crochet?  persuaded your Unit to try their hands at mime - or role-play - folk-singing - or dance/drama?  played a musical instrument well?  learnt any of the modern hymn-tunes and taught them to others - or learnt new campfire songs or Brownie singing games and taught them?  made jewellery or moccasins - learnt metal-work - arranged flowers artistically - or cured a sheepskin?  had a creative idea - for a poem - a painting - a design - a philosophy of life?  even though it may be difficult to express in words.  The mind is creative as well as the hands.  Who knows?  You may have a contribution to make to life through an original idea.

                Train Yourself To ThinkHave you Ever?
                asked an expert ti visit you and lead a discussion on morals, sex, and other problems of growing up?  taken part in a discussion on smoking or drinking, gambling or drug-taking?  e.e. to smoke or not to smoke - and why?  helped to plan a Guides' Own Service using modern records, folk-songs, poetry, or other literature to illustrate the theme?  (The theme is obviously of your own choosing - it might be hope triumphing over despair; good over evil; success over failure; etc.)  found out the background of any of the Negro spirituals you sing or hear - or of any other folk song?  listened to a piece of classical music all the way through, discovering a 'tune' in a big work, and listening for it's appearance again and again - or choosing one instrument (e.g. a horn) and following it's part all the way through?  been to a furniture auction, and learned to pick out the antique from the old or shoddy?  And have you begun to learn something about style, period, and craftmanship?  recorded points of interest which are happening around you and which you think will form our history?  really found out about and thought about your own religion and it's beliefs before condemning others?  discovered anything about the beliefs of other groups of Christians who think differently from yourself?  (The Society of Friends, perhaps, or The Christian Scientists?)  thought seriously about why you think the way you do?  listened, at an election, to all parties and studied their different policies before forming opinions?  read the newspaper regularly and intelligently?  taken an active part in a debate?  (This could be about anything interesting - e.g. pop music, space research, religion, racial discrimination, divided loyalties.)  listened to a sermon, so that you could repeat it afterwards to someone who was not there?  trained your imagination by 'acting out' a real-life situation - someone going for an interview for a job perhaps - so that you get inside the skin of the character concerned, you 'become' that particular person for the time being, and you and the others taking part feel for yourselves what it is like to be in that position?  learnt to distinguish silver from plate - and to study hallmarks - or china from earthenware and to study the factory-marks on the underside?  invited someone from another country to talk to your unit and perhaps show some coloured slides - or invited a Guider or Ranger who has been to a Guide event abroad to share her experiences with you?  found out as much as possible about a member country of the World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts and mounted a demonstration for Thinking Day or some other important occasion?  discovered the difference between an Eisteddfod, Gymanfa Ganu, and Noson Lawen - and taken part in one event?

                Relationships With People or Enjoying Life With Others (try two of these).  Have you Ever?
                gone to the theatre in a group - or had a restaurant meal with a party?  studied good manners and learned to make correct introductions?  asked a Marriage Guidance Counsellor or other expert to your Unit to discuss boy/girl relationships with you?  developed tolerance - so that you are prepared to listen to other people's point of view, even when you don't agree - or have you learned to conquer prejudice?  made friends with someone of different politics, religion, race, or background?  stayed in Youth Hostels in your own country or abroad?  done your fair share in the work of your Unit - or pulled your weight in form events at school or community events at home or work?  camped with people from another country - or been abroad with your Unit?  helped others less priviledged than yourself to enjoy themselves, you also getting some pleasure from it?  visited a mixed Youth Club with other members of your Unit?  asked your local Venture Scouts in to share a discussion or debate with you?  worked as a member of a team - Rangers, Scouts, other friends - on any project?  really tried to listen to as well as talk with other people, so as to maintain easy conversation with any group from childhood to old age?  worked with a Church group - perhaps assisting them with helping old people?  learned something of someone else's job - or seen a newspaper printed - or visited a new housing estate - and discussed it afterwards?  spent a weekend at a Ranger/Venture Scout camp - or camped with any other Youth Organisations?  helped to organise a dance or social evening?  given a short talk to a different group from the one to which you belong?  played an active part in some community project - or in the Service project organised by your own Unit?

                Train To Serve OthersHave You Ever?
                helped to plan a project (perhaps a jumble sale or coffee morning) to raise funds for relief organisations?  helped the Conservation Corp on one of it's clearance schemes?  learnt to type?  taught yourself braille - or BSL?  helped to organise a 'Road Safety' or 'Anti-Litter' campaign?  delivered Christmas or Harvest Festival gifts?  helped a handicapped unit?  learnt to swim and life-save?  found out about the adult voluntary organisations in your area, and what they do?  (WRVS, Red Cross, St John or St Andrew's Ambulance Association, VSO, IVS, CSV).  learnt a foreign languags sufficiently well to converse in it?  If you are Welsh or Irish, learnt to speak your own language?  had practice in giving a good vote of thanks at the end of a talk or meeting?  attended a 'One in Five' lecture?  trained to help if there is fire, flood, accident, drowning, burglary, chimney on fire, a lost child - any kind of disaster?  helped to organise a Guide event such as a Thinking Day celebration; Guiders' Training; Annual General Meeting; Brownie Revels; Christmas Good Turn?  found someone or some institution that would be glad of your regular help - and given it?  learnt to prevent accidents about the home?  Can you re-wire a plug and mend an electric fuse?  volunteered for baby-sitting for hard-up young couples - or visited an old person regularly?  trained yourself to know your own locality really well, so as to be able to escort visitors around in a knowledgeable and interesting way?  been on a working party?  given service to your Church by teaching a Sunday School class - or organising a creche - or singing in the choir - or helping with organisations connected with Church, such as the local Youth Group?  learnt first aid (including artificial respiration) so as to be able to cope competently in an emergency?  learnt simple home nursing, realising the importance of serving food in an appetising way?  helped at a Cheshire Home - or in an old people's home - or children's nursery - or hospital - or children's play centre - or with the WRVS Meals on Wheels Service?  helped to paint or wallpaper a room?  learnt to play an instrument well enough to accompany singing or dancing?  learnt the elementary mechanics of a car?  taken part in a sponsored event?  dug a plot of garden - or cleaned out a chicken-house - or scrubbed a floor?

                Home Craft SkillsHave You Ever?
                had a meal with someone from another country?  cooked a meal entirely from overseas recipes?  helped someone move house - or move from one bed-sitter to another?  studied flower arrangement?  made bread?  visited a friend in a bed-sitter and helped cook a meal on one ring?  eaten out in a hotel or restaurant as a group?  helped plan the menu, cook, and budget for a small group at a weekend camp?  shampooed a carpet - or a child - or an old lady?  helped prepare a buffet supper and it's decorations?  made a complete, attractive and varied meal from leftovers?  trained yourself to cope with accidents in the home?  acquired a basic knowledge of household equipment and how it works - fuses - power points - machines?  tried your hand at cooking on three different types of stove - gas, electricity, solid fuel or oil?  Which do you prefer?  planned a room as a bed-sitter  choosing the colour scheme and deciding how to furnish it inexpensively but attractively?  grown unusual vegetables from seed - sweetcorn - sugar peas - herbs?  helped decorate a cake for a special occasion?  A World Flag for Thinking Day, a jet plane or railway engine for the local Cub Scouts, etc.  visited your local Young Farmer's Club and had a lesson in plucking and dressing a chicken - or skinning a rabbit?  made meringues, sweets, shortbread, or wine - potted plants - turned a sheet sides to middle - re-caned a chair - dyed a pair of shoes?  tried your hand at invalid cookery?  cooked kebabs at an open-air barbecue?

                Enjoy the Out Of DoorsHave You Ever?
                done any lightweight camping?  learnt to swim really well?  walked fifteen miles?  been on a Youth Hostelling tour?  done any rock climbing - or trained to do so?  learnt to fly?  climbed a mountain?  groomed a horse - or bathed a dog - or milked a cow or goat?  hiked efficiently?  walked in a small group through the night and seen the sun rise?  tried your hand at orienteering?  learnt to ski - gone on a ski trail?  gone on a cycling-camping holiday - maybe doing about fifty miles a day?  followed a nature trail?  tried your hand at angling?  trained yourself to sail - or row - or paddle a canoe?  done any bird-watching?  followed a river to it's source - or explored ten miles or so of sea-shore?  camped abroad - or in this country with visitors from overseas?  really explored your own home town?  helped to make a census of the traffic on your local roads?  made natural decorations for Christmas or Easter?  studied stars - the sea shore - clouds - meteorology - geology?  made a nature collection of - wild flowers - bird photographs - bark rubbings - drawings of wild animals you have seen?  tried your hand at painting landscapes - oils or watercolours - or perhaps drawing only - chalks or charcoal?  helped to make a survey of your local town in relation to the surrounding countryside?  Where should new buildings be developed so as to blend with beautiful surroundings - so as not to mar the sky-line?  made a haystack - cut peat - gone potato- or carrot-lifting or fruit picking - grown your own flowers or vegetables from seed?  learnt to ride well - or taken part regularly in a new outdoor sport?  gone on an outdoor working party - cutting ivy from trees - clearing undergrowth or streams?  done any pot-holing - water skiing - hill walking - skin-diving?  had a mountain camp - or an adventure camp?  done spooring - brashed trees - hostelled or hill- or glen-walked?  studied the less obvious things in nature - insects - mosses - grasses - ferns?  made an outdoor shelter from natural materials?  helped to make an outdoor cine film - perhaps tape-recording speech and sound to go with it?  tape-recorded bird-song?  discovered, by exploring and enquiring, something about a famous local character?  For instance, if you live within reach of Downpatrick, Co Down, why not visit those places authentically connected with St Patrick's ministry?  

                the Ranger Challenge Certificate
                Learn To Be Fit
                Complete one challenge from 'Your personal appearance' and one from 'Physical recreation'
                Your Personal Appearance:
                a) good grooming - this can do wonders for self-confidence, and is well worth the few extra moments each day spent on attention to detail.  Attend a course on this.  b) hair, skin and nail care - how a person wears her hair can alter her whole appearance; it is a frame to the face, and matters enormously.  Unhealthy skin and badly kept nails can spoil the effect of the most careful make-up, and are of fundamental importance.  This calls for a course on its own.  c) clothing - nowadays, with all sorts of synthetic fibres in the shops, it is possible to look band-box fresh at almost all times.  What to wear to suit the occasion as well as to suit your figure type, colouring, and age is worth considerable thought.  Attend a class on choosing, making, and wearing clothes.  d) hygiene - never was there a time when there were more deodorants, talc, soaps, lotions and sanitary appliances on the market.  Because of this, you may need help in choosing what is best for you, in using them correctly, and in all the problems of keeping fresh and charming in a crowded world.  Attend a course on some aspect of health and hygiene.  e) fitness - this depends on the right diet, the right amount of sleep, the right balance between work and play, and the right amount of regular exercise in the open air.  Attend a course on some aspect of beauty, health and fitness.
                Physical Recreation
                a) dancing - attend classes in some branch of dancing, including modern, ballroom, or folk.  b) self-defence - attend classes in judo or other methods of self-defence, or fencing.  Every girl's confidence is improved once she has been taught, professionally, how to look after herself.  c) watersports - apply to your local baths or club to attend a class in swimming or lifesaving, according to the standard you have reached, or apply to the local sub-aqua club or to the police to join a course in skin-diving.  d) ice sports - attend classes in skating (ice if possible, otherwise roller); or learn to ski, perhaps on a local dry ski-slope, before joining a party to Scotland or the mountainous regions of Europe to try the real thing.  e) ball sports - learn a sport new to you, such as badminton, tennis, squash, golf, hockey, cricket, lacrosse or netball.  Aim to reach a good standard.  keep fit - attend keep fit or gymnastic classes, on a regular basis.  f) riding - receive regular instruction from a local riding club, and improve your standard as far as possible.  It may be that costs can be cut if you are prepared to help with the mucking-out and grooming.  g) cycling - exercise regularly, if possible by joining a local club.  Improve your skill in cycle maintenance and puncture repair.  h) hill-walking - train yourself for this by exercising regularly, learning basic first aid, map and compass work, and the Country Code.  Take part in as much hill walking as local geography will allow.  i) mountaineering - as for hillwalking above, but you will need to take professional classes in mountaineering, to study 'Safety on Mountains', to learn how to deal with accidents, how to prevent exposure, and what clothing and equipment to wear.  Take part in mountaineering under expert guidance.
                j) cross-country running - run regularly, preferably with one or two others.  If possible join a local club.  k) orienteering - learn how to read a map and use a Silva compass.  Enter events run by your local Orienteering club.  Start at 'Wayfarer' standard, and progress to the longer distance courses.  This sport, a combination of cross-country running and map-reading, is ideal for a few friends to learn together.  

                Creative Ability
                a) guitar playing - use the guitar to accompany campfire singing or folksinging, in a beat group or as a soloist.  (Most European Guides play the guitar, and take it as a matter of course that British Guides do too.  Sad and frequent is their disillusionment!)  b) amateur dramatics - take part in the production of a play.  Many Local Education Authorities and other bodies run competitions for youth groups in their area, and this may give you the impetus to 'have a go'.  There is an enormous sense of achievement and delight in taking part in a joint effort of this kind, the more so if you can have a mixed cast, working with a local Venture Scout Unit, or boys from another Youth Organisation.  c) pottery - this is something that may be done best as a group, because the more there are of you wanting to do it, the easier it becomes to get expert help and equipment.  Many schools and colleges will fire pots for you at very little cost, and your own Unit hand-made crockery might well be something to be proud of.  d) bellringing - this is skilled but most rewarding work, and more and more girls are learning its intricacies.  e) brass rubbing - make a series of rubbings and mount them to form intriguing wall decorations.  This may take you far afield, perhaps by bicycle, to visit more remote churches.  This craft demands much patience, and permission to rub brasses must always be obtained from the incumbent of the church.  f) lino cutting - make your own Unit Christmas and Easter cards, birthday or invitation cards, and book plates.  g) oil painting - many people find this the ideal relaxation from the stresses and strains of everyday life.  Can you attend a few classes to learn the basic technique, and then progress from strength to strength through practice?  h) poster design - this is an art form which is much in the news with today's stress on advertising.  Because of this it is most important that your Unit display boards and notices of dances and events of all kinds should be of as nearly professional a finish as possible.  i) dressmaking - with modern sewing machines, easy-to-sew paper patterns, and plenty of reasonably priced materials in the shops, most girls can learn to make their own clothes.  Expert instruction can help you to give your homemade things an edge over those bought ready-made.  j) orchestral playing - more and more orchestras are springing up in schools, colleges, towns, and youth groups.  Learning a new instrument, or 'rubbing-up' your play on an old one may bring you hours of satisfaction.  k) toymaking - there is endless scope here for imaginative use of materials of all kinds.  Toys are to be played with, not just looked at, so they must be safe, durable, and appealing.  l) filming - make a film of your Unit's activities, or a documentary of the life of your town, or of a visit abroad.  You may be able to get help in the way of advice about loan or hire of equipment from your local Youth Officer or a film club in the area.  A very good start is for one or two of you to join a Local Education Authority course in the subject, or if there are enough of you wanting to do it, to request expert instruction in this specially for your unit.
                Rangers/Young Leaders in the 1980s
                Rangers/Young Leaders in the 1990s
                Rangers/Young Leaders in the 2000s
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